We are Individuals Learning is a process, not a thing that can be seen. It is individual and personal.
First Perspective: Teaching Motivation: Why people learn Instruction: How people learn Context: How the part fits the big picture Explanation: Step by step, digestible small chunks Practice: Demonstrate, practice with supervision, solo Evaluate: Verify learning
Second Perspective: Empowered Learners Co-design Customize Have Identity Manipulate James Paul Gee, What Video Games Have to Teach us About Learning and Literacy
Learning Through Problem Solving Well ordered problems Pleasantly frustrating Cycles of expertise Information on demand Fishtanks Sandboxes
Three Kinds of Learning Through the 5 senses Intuitive Reflective
Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Bloom’s Cognitive Domain of Learning The ability to remember and recall in the same way it was taught. Development of understanding to put in own words, explain/clarify meaning, and infer unknown information from known. Ability to use learned information in new and concrete ways. Able to break down things into smaller parts. The ability to put parts together in a new way or to form a new pattern. The ability to judge how well something went or met a goal.
Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Characterization Krathwohl’s Affective Domain of Learning Paying attention to someone or something Taking action, giving feedback, obtaining satisfaction Acceptance, appreciation, preference, commitment to something because of its perceived worth or value Adding new values or beliefs, starting to organize life around those values Integration of values into daily lifestyle or philosophy. Start to live it naturally. Becomes part of your life.
Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Characterization Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Cognitive Domain of Learning Affective Domain of Learning
Kolb’s Learning Styles We use all four learning styles but usually prefer one. Theorist - Abstract Conceptualization: lecture, papers, analogies, how this related to that, case studies, theory readings, thinking alone.
Kolb’s Learning Styles Pragmatist - Concrete Experience: laboratories, field work, observations, how can I apply this in practice, peer feedback. Activist - Active Experimentation: simulations, case study, small group discussions, peer feedback. Reflector - Reflective Observation: logs, journals, brainstorming, time to think.
Thorndike’s Laws of Learning Law of Readiness: People learn best when they are ready to learn. Law of Exercise: People enhance their memory through repetition, drill & practice. Law of Effect: Learning is strengthened when accompanied by pleasant, non threatening situation. It is decreased when associated with unpleasant situation.
More Thorndike Law of Primacy: First impressions last. Both good and bad. Law of Intensity: Learners learn more from doing real things than substitutes. Law of Recency: We remember the most recent thing we learn.
Characteristics of Adult Learners How are adult learners different than children? What do they want? What do they need?
Characteristic #1 The adult learner is primarily independent/self-directed in what he/she learns. Implication: support identity through introductions, use discussion, let them answer the questions, provide take aways/handouts for subsequent learning.
Characteristic #2 The adult learner has considerable experience to draw upon. Implication: opportunity for sharing experiences, small group discussion, build on past positive experiences.
Characteristic #3 The adult learner is most apt to be interested in topics that relate to the his/her stage of life. Implication: different ages may have different interests and concerns, as do individuals. Get feedback across the group. Those in transition are often more ready to learn.
Characteristic #4 The adult learner is most interested in information and ideas that solve problems that they presently face. Implication: use problem focused presentations vs information focused, use the learners’ own problems.
Characteristic #5 The adult learner is most interested in information that can be applied immediately. Implication: Focus on immediately usable ideas, ask learners to think of how they will apply their learnings.
Characteristic #6 The adult learner is motivated from within him/herself. Implication: Rewards aren’t always useful. Find out what the learner values. Respond to those values. (Remember the Affective Domain!)
Bring Learning to Life For one minute Once a week Ten things Understand how you learn to better understand how learning happens.
“Without practice, there is no knowledge” Paulo Freire