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Promotion and prevention Theory of Tory Higgins Lecture 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Promotion and prevention Theory of Tory Higgins Lecture 5."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Promotion and prevention Theory of Tory Higgins Lecture 5

3 Approach vs. avoidance Approach – towards positive goals Avoidance – away from negative goals Different types of positive goals

4 Goals and evaluation Minimal goals Maximal goals

5 Minimal and maximal goals and evaluation of outcome Minimal goal NegativeNon-negative Non-positive Positive Maximal goal

6 Promotion and prevention – theory of Tory Higgins Two regulatory modes: –Through positive states – promotion mode (promotion focus) –Through negative states – prevention mode (prevention focus)

7 Discrepancies within the „self” (Tory Higgins) Ideal self – whom I would like to be Ought self – whom I should be Reflected self – who the others would like me to be Real self – who I am

8 Ideal vs. ought self Who I want to be (my hope, aspirations) vs. who I ought to be (norms, moral principles) „I want” vs. „I have to” Id vs. superego My own goals (internalized) vs. goals imposed by society

9 Ideals vs. oughts Ideals – maximal goals –Goal-consistency – positive outcome –Goal-inconsistency – non-positive outcome Oughts – minimal goals –Goal-consistency – non-negative result –Goal-inconsistency – negative result

10 Minimal and maximal goals and evaluation of outcome Minimal goal NegativeNon-negative Non-positive Positive Maximal goal

11 Promotion and prevention – theory of Tory Higgins Two regulatory modes: –Focus on ideals  Maximizing positive states  promotion focus –Focus on oughts  Minimizing negative states  prevention focus

12 Promotion vs. prevention Differences in upbringing Differences in experienced emotions Differences in risk behavior

13 Promotion focus Promotion focus Nurturance needs Strong ideals Gain/non-gain situations Sensitivity to presence or absence of positive outcomes Approach as strategy Insure hits and insure against Errors of omission Cheerfulness/dejection emotions

14 Prevention focus Prevention focus Security needs Strong oughts Non-loss/loss situations Sensitivity to absence or presence of negative outcomes Avoidance as strategy Insure correct rejections and Insure against errors of commission Queiscence/agitation emotions

15 Promotion vs. Prevention and risk- seeking Promotion  minimizing false negatives  risk seeking Prevention  minimizing false positives  risk aversion

16 Categorization decisions Outcome Alternative Outcome predictor HAlternative predictor non-H a Hits b False positives c False negatives d Correct rejections

17 Passed the test Failed / did not take the test fitmisfitfitmisfit HitFalse positive False negative Correct rejection Prevention minimizes this Promotion minimizes this

18 Risk behavior and categorization decisions minimizing false positives  risk aversion minimizing false negatives  risk seeking

19 Promotion vs. Prevention and emotions Regulatory modes and the emotional circumplex of Russell and Mehrabian Telic vs. Paratelic motivation

20 Promotion vs. prevention and categorization processes - summary Don’t accept the undesirable Minimize false alarms Negativity effect Risk-avoidance Preservation of status quo (security, conservation) Don’t reject the desirable Minimize misses Positivity effect Risk-seeking Change of status quo (development, optimization)

21 Summary of the two regulatory modes PromotionPrevention IdealsOughts Ensures developmentEnsures security Emotions: from boredom to excitement to sadness and disappointment Emotions: from tension to relaxation Risk seeking strategies: maximization of „hits” Risk averse strategies: maximization of „correct rejections” „Eager” strategies – focus on positives„Vigilant” strategies – focus on negatives Positivity effect?Negativity effect?

22 Other correlates PromotionPrevention Speed preferred to accuracyAccuracy preferred to speed Additive counterfactuals (If I did X…)Subtractive counterfactuals (If I haven’t done X…) Omission error – sense of guilt for not doing something Commission error – sense of guilt for having done something In categorization tasks more categorization criteria In categorization tasks generowaniefewer categorization criteria Openess to change, e.g. the present course of action Lack of openess to change, less frequent changes of course of action

23 Promotion – prevention as trait and state Dispositional trait - chronic regulatory focus Situationally evoked mode – focus on promotion vs. prevention

24 Promotion/prevention as disposition – measurement methods Self-guide Strength Measure – based on reaction time to ideals- and oughts- associated contents Regulatory Focus Questionnaire 11 items, scale 1-5 (exemplary items) –Compared to most people are you typicaly unable to get what you want out of life? (promotion- reversed) –Not being careful enough has gotten me into trouble at time (prevention reversed) –I feel like I have made progress toward being successful in my life (promotion) –Did you get on your parents’ nerves often when you were growing up (prevention reversed)

25 Prmotion vs. prevention as state Priming of oughts vs. ideals” Focus on positives (eager strategy) vs. elimination of negatives (vigilant strategy) –Presentation of a task as gain vs. loss prevention You get $3 – during the task you can receive more (promotion) vs. you get $6 – during the task you can lose part of the sum (prevention) –Instruction: how much you would have gained if you chose X (promotion) vs. how much you would have lost if you have not chosen X (prevention) –Find useful elements (promotion) vs. eliminate harmful elements (prevention)

26 Consequences of „regulatory fit” Dispositional Situational PromotionPrevention Promotion Faster reaction time Higher evaluation of an object chosen in the decision process Slower reaction time Lower evalutaion of the chosen alternative Prevention Slower reaction time Lower evalutaion of the chosen alternative Faster reaction time Higher evaluation of an object chosen in the decision process

27 Promowanie-zapobieganie a inne teorie

28 Kołowa teoria emocji (‘emotional circumplex’) Dwa wymiary emocji: Znak (przyjemny – przykry) Pobudzenie (wysokie – niskie pobudzenie) James A. Russell (University of British Columbia)

29 hectic exciting alive exhilirating interesting arousing stimulatingsensational pleasing pretty beautiful pleasantnice serene restful peaceful calm tranquil rushed intense frenzied panicky tense forceful uncomfortable dissatisfying displeasing repulsive unpleasant unstimulating dull dreary boring inactive idle monotoneous active lazyslow drowsy High arousal Low arousal negative positive After: Russell, Lanius, 1984 Emotional circumplex

30 Emotional circumplex and promotion-prevention High arousal Excitement Pleasant Relaxation Low arousal Boredom Unpleasant Anxiety PREVENTION PROMOTION

31 Promotion – prevention and telic vs. paratelic motivation Theory of Michael Apter

32 Telic vs. paratelic motivation activity goal activity Telic motivation Paratelic motivation

33 Donald O. Hebb Michael J. Apter vs

34 Telic vs. paratelic motivation TELIC –Initiated by unpleasant arousal (anxiety) –Ultimate goal – relaxation –High arousal – unpleasant –Low arousal – pleasant –Motivation: avoiding overly stimulating environments PARATELIC –Initiated by low arousal (boredom) –Ultimate goal – excitement –High arousal – pleasant –Low arousal– unpleasant –Motivation: looking for stimulating environments

35 Emotional circumplex and telic-paratelic motivation High arousal Excitement Pleasant Relaxation Low arousal Boredom Unpleasant Anxiety TELIC PARATELIC

36 Is the dichotomy of promotion v. prevention related to other dichotomies?

37 Promotion-prevention and temporal perspective

38 Mental construal theory by Yaacov Trope and Nira Liberman Psychological distance –Temporal: close vs. distant events –Spatial: close vs. distant situations and objects –Social: us vs. them –Psychological: real vs. hypothetical Yaacov Trope Nira Liberman

39 Representation of objects and events depends on psychological distance The more distant (temporal, spatial, psychological) the more: –Abstract –Polarized – unambiguously positive or negative –Homogeneous –Future behaviors categorized on higher identification level than present behaviors –(what are you doing? vs. what will you be doing?) Works both ways: –Perspective  categoryzation –Categorization  perspective

40 Promotion-prevention and mental construal Promotion  more psychological distance Prevention  less psychological distance

41 Summary: „either – or” vs. necessary balance? Consquences of prevention only? Consequences of promotion only?


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