4Minimal and maximal goals and evaluation of outcome Minimal goalNegativeNon-negativeMaximal goalPositiveNon-positive
5Promotion and prevention – theory of Tory Higgins Two regulatory modes:Through positive states – promotion mode (promotion focus)Through negative states – prevention mode (prevention focus)
6Discrepancies within the „self” (Tory Higgins) Ideal self – whom I would like to beOught self – whom I should beReflected self – who the others would like me to beReal self – who I am
7Ideal vs. ought selfWho I want to be (my hope, aspirations) vs. who I ought to be (norms, moral principles)„I want” vs. „I have to”Id vs. superegoMy own goals (internalized) vs. goals imposed by society
18Promotion vs. Prevention and emotions Regulatory modes and the emotional circumplex of Russell and MehrabianTelic vs. Paratelic motivation
19Promotion vs. prevention and categorization processes - summary Don’t accept the undesirableMinimize false alarmsNegativity effectRisk-avoidancePreservation of status quo (security, conservation)Don’t reject the desirableMinimize missesPositivity effectRisk-seekingChange of status quo (development, optimization)
20Summary of the two regulatory modes PromotionPreventionIdealsOughtsEnsures developmentEnsures securityEmotions: from boredom to excitement to sadness and disappointmentEmotions: from tension to relaxationRisk seeking strategies: maximization of „hits”Risk averse strategies: maximization of „correct rejections”„Eager” strategies – focus on positives„Vigilant” strategies – focus on negativesPositivity effect?Negativity effect?
21Other correlates Promotion Prevention Speed preferred to accuracy Accuracy preferred to speedAdditive counterfactuals (If I did X…)Subtractive counterfactuals (If I haven’t done X…)Omission error – sense of guilt for not doing somethingCommission error – sense of guilt for having done somethingIn categorization tasks more categorization criteriaIn categorization tasks generowaniefewer categorization criteriaOpeness to change, e.g. the present course of actionLack of openess to change, less frequent changes of course of action
22Promotion – prevention as trait and state Dispositional trait - chronic regulatory focusSituationally evoked mode – focus on promotion vs. prevention
23Promotion/prevention as disposition – measurement methods Self-guide Strength Measure – based on reaction time to ideals- and oughts- associated contentsRegulatory Focus Questionnaire 11 items, scale 1-5 (exemplary items)Compared to most people are you typicaly unable to get what you want out of life? (promotion- reversed)Not being careful enough has gotten me into trouble at time (prevention reversed)I feel like I have made progress toward being successful in my life (promotion)Did you get on your parents’ nerves often when you were growing up (prevention reversed)
24Prmotion vs. prevention as state Priming of oughts vs. ideals”Focus on positives (eager strategy) vs. elimination of negatives (vigilant strategy)Presentation of a task as gain vs. loss preventionYou get $3 – during the task you can receive more (promotion) vs. you get $6 – during the task you can lose part of the sum (prevention)Instruction: how much you would have gained if you chose X (promotion) vs. how much you would have lost if you have not chosen X (prevention)Find useful elements (promotion) vs. eliminate harmful elements (prevention)
25Consequences of „regulatory fit” DispositionalSituationalPromotionPreventionFaster reaction timeHigher evaluation of an object chosen in the decision processSlower reaction timeLower evalutaion of the chosen alternative
37Mental construal theory by Yaacov Trope and Nira Liberman Psychological distanceTemporal: close vs. distant eventsSpatial: close vs. distant situations and objectsSocial: us vs. themPsychological: real vs. hypotheticalYaacov TropeNira Liberman
38Representation of objects and events depends on psychological distance The more distant (temporal, spatial, psychological) the more:AbstractPolarized – unambiguously positive or negativeHomogeneousFuture behaviors categorized on higher identification level than present behaviors(what are you doing? vs. what will you be doing?)Works both ways:Perspective categoryzationCategorization perspective
39Promotion-prevention and mental construal Promotion more psychological distancePrevention less psychological distance
40Summary: „either – or” vs. necessary balance? Consquences of prevention only?Consequences of promotion only?