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Promotion and prevention Theory of Tory Higgins

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1 Promotion and prevention Theory of Tory Higgins
Lecture 5

2 Approach vs. avoidance Approach – towards positive goals
Avoidance – away from negative goals Different types of positive goals

3 Goals and evaluation Minimal goals Maximal goals

4 Minimal and maximal goals and evaluation of outcome
Minimal goal Negative Non-negative Maximal goal Positive Non-positive

5 Promotion and prevention – theory of Tory Higgins
Two regulatory modes: Through positive states – promotion mode (promotion focus) Through negative states – prevention mode (prevention focus)

6 Discrepancies within the „self” (Tory Higgins)
Ideal self – whom I would like to be Ought self – whom I should be Reflected self – who the others would like me to be Real self – who I am

7 Ideal vs. ought self Who I want to be (my hope, aspirations) vs. who I ought to be (norms, moral principles) „I want” vs. „I have to” Id vs. superego My own goals (internalized) vs. goals imposed by society

8 Ideals vs. oughts Ideals – maximal goals Oughts – minimal goals
Goal-consistency – positive outcome Goal-inconsistency – non-positive outcome Oughts – minimal goals Goal-consistency – non-negative result Goal-inconsistency – negative result

9 Minimal and maximal goals and evaluation of outcome
Minimal goal Negative Non-negative Maximal goal Positive Non-positive

10 Promotion and prevention – theory of Tory Higgins
Two regulatory modes: Focus on ideals  Maximizing positive states  promotion focus Focus on oughts Minimizing negative states  prevention focus

11 Promotion vs. prevention
Differences in upbringing Differences in experienced emotions Differences in risk behavior

12 Promotion focus Promotion focus Nurturance needs Strong ideals
Sensitivity to presence or absence of positive outcomes Nurturance needs Promotion focus Strong ideals Approach as strategy Insure hits and insure against Errors of omission Gain/non-gain situations Cheerfulness/dejection emotions

13 Prevention focus Prevention focus Security needs Strong oughts
Sensitivity to absence or presence of negative outcomes Security needs Prevention focus Strong oughts Avoidance as strategy Insure correct rejections and Insure against errors of commission Non-loss/loss situations Queiscence/agitation emotions

14 Promotion vs. Prevention and risk-seeking
Promotion  minimizing false negatives  risk seeking Prevention  minimizing false positives  risk aversion

15 Categorization decisions
predictor H Alternative predictor non-H Outcome a Hits c False negatives Alternative Outcome b False positives d Correct rejections

16 Passed the test Failed / did not take the test fit misfit fit misfit Hit False positive False negative Correct rejection Promotion minimizes this Prevention minimizes this

17 Risk behavior and categorization decisions
minimizing false positives risk aversion minimizing false negatives  risk seeking

18 Promotion vs. Prevention and emotions
Regulatory modes and the emotional circumplex of Russell and Mehrabian Telic vs. Paratelic motivation

19 Promotion vs. prevention and categorization processes - summary
Don’t accept the undesirable Minimize false alarms Negativity effect Risk-avoidance Preservation of status quo (security, conservation) Don’t reject the desirable Minimize misses Positivity effect Risk-seeking Change of status quo (development, optimization)

20 Summary of the two regulatory modes
Promotion Prevention Ideals Oughts Ensures development Ensures security Emotions: from boredom to excitement to sadness and disappointment Emotions: from tension to relaxation Risk seeking strategies: maximization of „hits” Risk averse strategies: maximization of „correct rejections” „Eager” strategies – focus on positives „Vigilant” strategies – focus on negatives Positivity effect? Negativity effect?

21 Other correlates Promotion Prevention Speed preferred to accuracy
Accuracy preferred to speed Additive counterfactuals (If I did X…) Subtractive counterfactuals (If I haven’t done X…) Omission error – sense of guilt for not doing something Commission error – sense of guilt for having done something In categorization tasks more categorization criteria In categorization tasks generowaniefewer categorization criteria Openess to change, e.g. the present course of action Lack of openess to change, less frequent changes of course of action

22 Promotion – prevention as trait and state
Dispositional trait - chronic regulatory focus Situationally evoked mode – focus on promotion vs. prevention

23 Promotion/prevention as disposition – measurement methods
Self-guide Strength Measure – based on reaction time to ideals- and oughts- associated contents Regulatory Focus Questionnaire 11 items, scale 1-5 (exemplary items) Compared to most people are you typicaly unable to get what you want out of life? (promotion- reversed) Not being careful enough has gotten me into trouble at time (prevention reversed) I feel like I have made progress toward being successful in my life (promotion) Did you get on your parents’ nerves often when you were growing up (prevention reversed)

24 Prmotion vs. prevention as state
Priming of oughts vs. ideals” Focus on positives (eager strategy) vs. elimination of negatives (vigilant strategy) Presentation of a task as gain vs. loss prevention You get $3 – during the task you can receive more (promotion) vs. you get $6 – during the task you can lose part of the sum (prevention) Instruction: how much you would have gained if you chose X (promotion) vs. how much you would have lost if you have not chosen X (prevention) Find useful elements (promotion) vs. eliminate harmful elements (prevention)

25 Consequences of „regulatory fit”
Dispositional Situational Promotion Prevention Faster reaction time Higher evaluation of an object chosen in the decision process Slower reaction time Lower evalutaion of the chosen alternative

26 Promowanie-zapobieganie a inne teorie

27 James A. Russell (University of British Columbia)
Kołowa teoria emocji (‘emotional circumplex’) Dwa wymiary emocji: Znak (przyjemny – przykry) Pobudzenie (wysokie – niskie pobudzenie)

28 Emotional circumplex High arousal Low arousal positive negative
hectic active exciting frenzied alive rushed exhilirating intense panicky interesting arousing tense forceful stimulating sensational uncomfortable positive repulsive pleasing dissatisfying negative unpleasant pretty beautiful displeasing nice pleasant unstimulating serene dreary inactive restful dull peaceful calm boring idle drowsy tranquil monotoneous lazy slow After: Russell, Lanius, 1984 Low arousal

29 Emotional circumplex and promotion-prevention
High arousal Anxiety Excitement PROMOTION PREVENTION Pleasant Unpleasant Boredom Relaxation Low arousal

30 Promotion – prevention and telic vs. paratelic motivation
Theory of Michael Apter

31 Telic vs. paratelic motivation
activity Telic motivation goal goal Paratelic motivation activity

32 Michael J. Apter vs Donald O. Hebb

33 Telic vs. paratelic motivation
Initiated by unpleasant arousal (anxiety) Ultimate goal – relaxation High arousal – unpleasant Low arousal – pleasant Motivation: avoiding overly stimulating environments PARATELIC Initiated by low arousal (boredom) Ultimate goal – excitement High arousal – pleasant Low arousal– unpleasant Motivation: looking for stimulating environments

34 Emotional circumplex and telic-paratelic motivation
High arousal Anxiety Excitement PARATELIC TELIC Pleasant Unpleasant Boredom Relaxation Low arousal

35 Is the dichotomy of promotion v
Is the dichotomy of promotion v. prevention related to other dichotomies?

36 Promotion-prevention and temporal perspective

37 Mental construal theory by Yaacov Trope and Nira Liberman
Psychological distance Temporal: close vs. distant events Spatial: close vs. distant situations and objects Social: us vs. them Psychological: real vs. hypothetical Yaacov Trope Nira Liberman

38 Representation of objects and events depends on psychological distance
The more distant (temporal, spatial, psychological) the more: Abstract Polarized – unambiguously positive or negative Homogeneous Future behaviors categorized on higher identification level than present behaviors (what are you doing? vs. what will you be doing?) Works both ways: Perspective categoryzation Categorization  perspective

39 Promotion-prevention and mental construal
Promotion  more psychological distance Prevention  less psychological distance

40 Summary: „either – or” vs. necessary balance?
Consquences of prevention only? Consequences of promotion only?

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