Presentation on theme: "Cerebral Cortex - The outermost layer of the brain containing gray matter. Responsible for many "higher-order" functions like language and information."— Presentation transcript:
1Cerebral Cortex - The outermost layer of the brain containing gray matter. Responsible for many "higher-order" functions like language and information processing.Cerebral Cortex
2Layers of the Cerebrum Gray Matter Outer layer of the brain Composed of neuron cell bodies (site of nucleus)Includes regions of the brain involved in muscle control, sensory perceptions, like seeing and hearing, memory, emotions, speech and critical thinking/problem solvingCell Body of Neuron
3Layers of the Cerebrum White Matter Contains mainly long, myelinated axonsInvolved in the relay of sensory information from the rest of the body to the cerebral cortexMyelin = fatty outer covering of axons.Allows for faster transmission of message.Axon of Neuron
4Limbic System set of evolutionary primitive brain structures involved in emotions and motivations, like the ones related to survivalfear, anger, sexual behavioralso involved in feeling of pleasureeating and sex
5Limbic System Structures Amygdala – linked to both fear responses and pleasure. Anxiety, autism, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias are linked to abnormal functioningHippocampus – sends memories out to the appropriate part of the brain for long-term storage and retrieves them when needed.damage to hippocampus can cause an inability to form new memoriesAmygdala shrinks by more than 30% in males upon castration – minimizes pleasure
6Diencephalon – “Interbrain” Sits on top of the brain stemEnclosed by the cerebral hemispheres; well-hidden brain regionMade of three partsThalamusHypothalamusEpithalamus
7Thalamus The relay station for sensory impulses (switchboard) Transfers impulses to the correct part of the cerebrum for interpretationAll incoming impulses get sorted here first and identified as pleasant or non-pleasant
8Hypothalamus Under the thalamus Controls organs by maintaining homeostasisImportant autonomic nervous system centerHelps regulate body temperatureControls water balanceRegulates metabolismHypothalamusThe pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus. It releases hormones which affect growth, sexual development, metabolism and reproduction.
9EpithalamusHelps to regulate the sleep/wake cycle by releasing hormones like melatonin from pineal glandControls some parts of emotions and moodEpithalamus
10Brain Stem Attaches to the spinal cord; primitive “rat brain” Controls automatic behaviors necessary for survival (breathing)Parts of the brain stem each about an inch longMidbrainPonsMedulla oblongata
11BrainstemMidbrain = Smallest region of the brain which relays auditory and visual information.Also controls eye movements, like blinkingPons = “bridge” of the brainstem. Controls Breathing.Medulla Oblongata = The lowest part of the brain stemMerges into the spinal cordContains important control centersHeart rate controlBlood pressure regulationBreathingSwallowingVomiting
12Cerebellumcontains ~70% of all the brain's neurons; yet is only 10% of the volume of the brain!contributes to precise timing of skeletal muscle activity (i.e. walking, running or standing on your hands)controls our balance and equilibriumDoesn’t function well under influence of alcoholWorks like ‘auto pilot’ – monitors body position and amount of tension in body parts
13Cerebellum and other brain parts Meninges = three connective tissue membranes covering and protecting brainDura Mater: outermost meninges; tough and thick. Can restrict movement of the brain within the skull. Protects the brain from movements that may stretch and break brain blood vessels.
14Central Nervous System Disorders Meningitis = inflammation of meninges. Serious threat since bacteria or viruses can spread to brain.Concussion = injury is slight; dizzy, see stars, or lose consciousness briefly but no permanent damage.Stroke = blood circulation to a brain area is blocked from ruptured blood vessel or blood clot.
15More Brain DisordersHemorrhage = bleeding from ruptured blood vessels.Aneurysm = dilation, bulging or ballooning out of part of the wall of a vein or artery in the brainCan get larger over a lifetimePushes on brain regions causing symptoms like blurred vision, stutter, etc.Can hemorrhage