Presentation on theme: "Laure Jacquemier-Paquin The impact of scents on product perceptions 2 illustrations in notebook and underwear categories Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Maître."— Presentation transcript:
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin The impact of scents on product perceptions 2 illustrations in notebook and underwear categories Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Maître de Conférences en Sciences de Gestion IUT GEA Toulon - Université du Sud Toulon Var Barcelone, le 21 octobre 2008
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Sequences of communication 1. Research context 2. Problematic and research questions 3. Conceptual framework of the research 4. Experimental design 5. Results and analysis 6. Conclusion
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 1. All perfumed ? A phenomena … … debatable Applications : the choice to perfume a product only because « It smells good » … Theories : no scientific evidence to prove the impact of scents on attitude and consumers behaviour Does it make sense to use scents in a marketing context ? Role of scents in positioning product ?
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Positioning product Product definition – A set of tangible attributes – A promise delivered to consumer Product is not what it is but what it does for consumer – Consumer perception approach – Perception as the way the consumer combine and organise technical attributes in a pertinent and meaningfull way for him/her Product benefit
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Product : set of structured data Tangibles attributes Intagibles attributes Attention / Selection Interpretation / Organisation Signification / Conceptualisatio n Sensory receptors Product : reorganisation of data in Fonctional benefit Hedonist benefit Selective attention Perceptual defense Thought schemas Abilities and motivation to process Expectations Product Process perception
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Perception singularities & Marketing implications Features caracteristics of perception : – selective – Subjective and personal – simpliflying & distorting Marketing implications in positioning : – Various representations – The task of the marketer is then to identify signals which catch the attention and which converge together towards a single representation of the product, precisely that the marketer intended to develop
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 2. Problematic and research questions Is the olfactory data playing a significant role in perception process, or to a lesser degree ? If yes, how scents would contribute to this process of attribution of significance to the product ? Can they encourage the consumer to perceive product precisely the way marketer anticipated to be ? Can they assist marketer in positioning product ?
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Persuasive role of scent in the perception process of the product 2. Problematic and research questions Bases of this postulate : Richness of associations of the odor Salience of scent Ability to catch the attention Odor like inductive element, even coordinator of the message?
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Objectives of research : 2. Problematic and research questions 1. Changing perception of the product induced by the perception of the odor 2. Two mechanisms of persuasion according to the orientation given by the smell and its apprehension mode (emotional or cognitive)
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Utility beliefs utility benefit Symbolic beliefs Hedonist / image benefit Product X Scent (2) Smell 1 (tangible charact.) Smell 2 (intangible charact. ) Psychological profil of consumer : Involvement, Familiarity, Need of cognition, affective intensity, optimal level of stimulation 3. Conceptual framework of research Product attitude Possibilities of associations of scent with one specific feature of the product, tangible (fonctional) or intangible (symbolic)
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 4. Methodology research Selection of materials Selection on the basis of what the odors must bring to the product. Choice of tested scents Focus group with experts (Quinte & Sens) 4 categories selected : Notebook, inderwear, paper towel, bag dustbin Larger variety of the subjective impressions for the books and scented underclothing Choice of tested products Desk research Qualitative study (17 semi-directives interviews) Underware (SG) Washing liquid Functional Cuddly symbolic Notebook Wood Tea
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Test of assumptions Quantitative causal study (264 U ; 255 NB) Quantitative study odors Product-odor couples Exploratory qualitative study (32 interviews) Pretests scales 4. Methodology research Study and measurement of perceptions of the scented product Variation of perceptions according to the conditions of smell Formulation of assumptions Construction of measuring scales Random assignment with a situation of odor Variance analyzis between group Study of dimensions of the odor
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 2 scents situations / 1 non-scented UNDERWEAR 1- Washing 2- « Cuddly » NOTEBOOK (nb) 1- Wood 2- Tea 5. Results and analysis Test of assumptions Attitude Absence of constancy or balance in the results No systematic positive effect on perceptions Pleasant to write (p=,005) Pleasure with the writing (ns) Resistance book (p=,002) Solidity /function (p=,014) Pleasant to carry (p=,000) comfort/main tenance (p=,001) Development chest (ns) Image femininity (ns) Level of Excitation (Emotional Intensity) (scent X OSL p=,024) Attitude (p=,000)
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 5. Results and analysis Lessons learned In reinforcement of a belief difficult to evaluate (Comfort, Pleasure of writing) but not useful in the contrary case (Image, Attracted Book) The odor, as a key of interpretation, must be easy to evaluate in which case (cuddly), unfavourable evaluation of the components which it is intended to support (Image, Attitude) In support of a credible belief (Pleasant to carry, Resistance book, Pleasure of writing) but not creation of any beliefs of its own (Image)
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Product Smell All signals lead to the same position Clear argumentation Liquid Wood Tea Important believes Hard to estimate Accessibles Pertinentes Easy to treat Product Cuddl y Accessible Pertinente Complex Uncredible belief Easy to treat 5. Results and Analysis What make the choice of a scent more effective than another one? Product-odor couple Complexity degree Interference in signals Defective argumentation Clear and convincing configuration
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 6. Conceptual gain Consider scents in the register of the representations – Semiotic function of scent – Prevalence of symbolic and semantic qualities on hedonist nature of the odor Articulation of two modes of action of the odor in regard to sensitive profile
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 6. Methodology gain Possibility of control and measurement of the olfactive phenomena – Complementarity of the modes of reading of the odor : naive and experts – Complementarity of collect methods : qualitative and quantitative, comparative and monadic – Indirect measurement of the role of the odor : multi- sensory approach
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 6. Operational gain Effective and measured role in promoting expected benefit Tool of assistance on the three levels of positioning : aimed, built and perceived Consumer Marketer To state a clear benefit, convincing Odor = Argument To maximize the persuasive force of the message To perceive reliable indices Odor = Reference mark To simplify the treatment
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Conclusion – Prudence ! Limits to any research Scent could not influence attitude formation : attempt of manipulation ? It’s not possible to change the reality of product thanks to the odor. We will be able only to – consolidate the representation that the consumer made of it – support credibility, the importance and the clearness of a real promise through the odor.
Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Thank you for your attention