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PENALTY Chapter 5. PENALTY CONTINGENCY The immediate, response-contingent REMOVAL of a REINFORCER resulting in a decreased frequency of that response.

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Presentation on theme: "PENALTY Chapter 5. PENALTY CONTINGENCY The immediate, response-contingent REMOVAL of a REINFORCER resulting in a decreased frequency of that response."— Presentation transcript:

1 PENALTY Chapter 5

2 PENALTY CONTINGENCY The immediate, response-contingent REMOVAL of a REINFORCER resulting in a decreased frequency of that response BEFORE BEHAVIOR AFTER

3 Penalty Contingencies BeforeBehaviorAfter Mark has all his points Mark threatensMark loses 50 points Jo has 25 centsJo swearsJo loses 25 cents Bob has 10 M&M’s Bob raises his hand Bob loses an M&M

4 Graph Threats Interventions

5 Penalty Principle A response becomes less frequent if loss of a reinforcer or a decrease in a reinforcer has immediately followed it in the past.

6 Punishment, penalty, or escape? BeforeBehaviorAfter Ed has painful rock in shoe Ed shakes rock out of shoe Ed has no painful rock Jo has no dust in eyes Jo blows on dusty surface Jo has painful dust in eyes Bill has $2Bill jumps on furniture Bill loses $1

7 What contingency? BeforeBehaviorAfter ShockLever pressNo shock Lever pressShock Food pelletsLever pressNo food pellets

8 Contingency Table Stimulus, event, or condition PresentRemove ReinforcerReinforcementPenalty Aversive Condition PunishmentEscape

9 Specific Penalty Contingencies Response cost Time out from positive reinforcement

10 Response-Cost Contingency The immediate response-contingent removal of a tangible reinforcer resulting in a decreased frequency of the response

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12 Time-out Contingency The immediate response-contingent removal of access to a reinforcer resulting in a decreased frequency of that response. Diagram this contingency. What do you need to know?

13 Need to Know? The target behavior (response) –YELLING OUT

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15 Response Cost vs. Time-Out Response Cost –Removal of the reinforcers themselves –Loss of earned reinforcers –Lost forever –tangibles Time-Out –Removal of access to reinforcers –Loss of opportunity to earn reinforcers –Lost temporarily –Activities

16 Time-Out Intervention % of time

17 Law of Effect The effects of our actions determine whether we will repeat them. results

18 E. L. Thorndike

19 Cats in a puzzle box Responses made just prior to “pleasant events” are more likely to be repeated, while responses made just prior to “unpleasant” events are more likely to diminish.

20 Pleasant events Satisfiers

21 Unpleasant events Annoyers

22 Rolling Over the Dead Man Not being tardy Not eating junk food Not speeding

23 Basic Behavioral Contingencies

24 Penalty & Reinforcement Before: Sam has no attention Before: Sam can play with toys After: Sam has attention Behavior: Sam bounces ball off his mother’s head Inappropriate Natural Reinforcement Contingency Performance-Management Penalty Contingency After: Sam can’t play with the toys

25 Review Contingency Table

26 Remove

27 Contingency Table Stimulus, Event, or Condition Remove

28 Contingency Table Stimulus, Event, or Condition Remove

29 Contingency Table Stimulus, event, or condition ReinforcerAversive condition RemovePenaltyEscape PresentReinforcementPunishment

30 Contingency Table Stimulus, event, or condition PresentRemove ReinforcerReinforcementPenalty Aversive Condition PunishmentEscape

31 Reversal Designs An experimental design in which we reverse between intervention and baseline conditions to assess the effects of those conditions.

32 Definition of ABA Design An experimental design in which the intervention and baseline conditions are reversed to assess the effects of those conditions A BA

33 BeforeBehaviorAfter Ed has painful rock in shoe Ed shakes rock out of shoe Ed has no painful rock Jo has no dust in eyes Jo blows on dusty surface Jo has painful dust in eyes Bill has $2Bill jumps on furniture Bill loses $1


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