Presentation on theme: "PENALTY Chapter 5. PENALTY CONTINGENCY The immediate, response-contingent REMOVAL of a REINFORCER resulting in a decreased frequency of that response."— Presentation transcript:
Penalty Principle A response becomes less frequent if loss of a reinforcer or a decrease in a reinforcer has immediately followed it in the past.
Punishment, penalty, or escape? BeforeBehaviorAfter Ed has painful rock in shoe Ed shakes rock out of shoe Ed has no painful rock Jo has no dust in eyes Jo blows on dusty surface Jo has painful dust in eyes Bill has $2Bill jumps on furniture Bill loses $1
What contingency? BeforeBehaviorAfter ShockLever pressNo shock Lever pressShock Food pelletsLever pressNo food pellets
Response Cost vs. Time-Out Response Cost –Removal of the reinforcers themselves –Loss of earned reinforcers –Lost forever –tangibles Time-Out –Removal of access to reinforcers –Loss of opportunity to earn reinforcers –Lost temporarily –Activities
Penalty & Reinforcement Before: Sam has no attention Before: Sam can play with toys After: Sam has attention Behavior: Sam bounces ball off his mother’s head Inappropriate Natural Reinforcement Contingency Performance-Management Penalty Contingency After: Sam can’t play with the toys
Reversal Designs An experimental design in which we reverse between intervention and baseline conditions to assess the effects of those conditions.
Definition of ABA Design An experimental design in which the intervention and baseline conditions are reversed to assess the effects of those conditions A BA
BeforeBehaviorAfter Ed has painful rock in shoe Ed shakes rock out of shoe Ed has no painful rock Jo has no dust in eyes Jo blows on dusty surface Jo has painful dust in eyes Bill has $2Bill jumps on furniture Bill loses $1