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Operant Conditioning Unit 7 Lesson 2. Objectives Describe and apply components of operant conditioning. Describe and apply components of operant conditioning.

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Presentation on theme: "Operant Conditioning Unit 7 Lesson 2. Objectives Describe and apply components of operant conditioning. Describe and apply components of operant conditioning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Operant Conditioning Unit 7 Lesson 2

2 Objectives Describe and apply components of operant conditioning. Describe and apply components of operant conditioning. Identify B.F. Skinner. Identify B.F. Skinner. Analyze uses and effectiveness of reinforcement and punishment. Analyze uses and effectiveness of reinforcement and punishment. Describe reinforcement schedules. Describe reinforcement schedules.

3 Warm Up What is learning? What is learning? Relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience. Relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience.

4 Review of Prior Learning You always talk to your (boy/girl) friend while sitting in your beanbag chair. After an ugly breakup, you find that even looking at the chair upsets you, so you give it to Goodwill. You always talk to your (boy/girl) friend while sitting in your beanbag chair. After an ugly breakup, you find that even looking at the chair upsets you, so you give it to Goodwill. Identify the NS-UCS-UCR-CS-CR Identify the NS-UCS-UCR-CS-CR What would be occurring if you couldn’t sit in any chair while talking on the phone? What would be occurring if you couldn’t sit in any chair while talking on the phone? What if you only refused to sit in beanbag chairs? What if you only refused to sit in beanbag chairs? What if you go away to college and your roommate has a chair that makes you chuckle as you sit in it and think about the story? What if you go away to college and your roommate has a chair that makes you chuckle as you sit in it and think about the story? And this can only occur after it’s gone away which is called? And this can only occur after it’s gone away which is called?

5 Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Classical Classical Environment provides the stimulus and the subject responds. Environment provides the stimulus and the subject responds. Operant Operant Environment responds to the subject’s behavior (stimulus). Environment responds to the subject’s behavior (stimulus).

6 Edward Thorndike Thorndike’s Law of Effect Thorndike’s Law of Effect Rewarded behavior likely to recur Rewarded behavior likely to recur

7 B.F. Skinner Behavior influenced by history of its consequences Behavior influenced by history of its consequences

8 Skinner Box

9 Shaping Reward behaviors close to the behavior he was looking for until animal performed desired behavior. Reward behaviors close to the behavior he was looking for until animal performed desired behavior.

10 Operant Conditioning Reward Reward A.k.a. Positive Reinforcement A.k.a. Positive Reinforcement Actions taken that result in consequences Actions taken that result in consequences Behavior more likely to occur again Behavior more likely to occur again Punishment Punishment Actions taken that result in  consequences Actions taken that result in  consequences Behavior less likely to occur again Behavior less likely to occur again

11 Operant Conditioning Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Actions taken to avoid punishments Actions taken to avoid punishments Behavior more likely to occur again Behavior more likely to occur again Omission Training Omission Training Actions taken which result in something being taken away Actions taken which result in something being taken away Behavior less likely to occur again Behavior less likely to occur again

12 Operant Conditioning Chart PositiveReinforcementPunishment OmissionTrainingNegativeReinforcement Pleasant Aversive + _

13 Activity Introduction to Operant Conditioning “problems” Introduction to Operant Conditioning “problems” When you’ve worked your way through the problem, identify which principle of operant conditioning is at work. When you’ve worked your way through the problem, identify which principle of operant conditioning is at work. ( +R, -R, OT, P)

14 Closure Day 1 Use all 4 principles of operant conditioning to describe how you’d get a child to eat spinach without complaining. Use all 4 principles of operant conditioning to describe how you’d get a child to eat spinach without complaining. Premack Principle- Use more preferred activity to motivate you to do less preferred activity Premack Principle- Use more preferred activity to motivate you to do less preferred activity

15 Day 2 Warm Up What’s the difference between classical and operant conditioning? What’s the difference between classical and operant conditioning? Classical-subject responds to environment Classical-subject responds to environment Operant – environment responds to subject’s behavior. Operant – environment responds to subject’s behavior.

16 Review Which principle of operant conditioning… Which principle of operant conditioning… Presents something unpleasant? Presents something unpleasant? Takes something pleasant away? Takes something pleasant away? Takes something unpleasant away? Takes something unpleasant away? Presents something pleasant? Presents something pleasant?

17 Types of Reinforcers Primary Reinforcer Primary Reinforcer Value doesn’t need to be learned. Value doesn’t need to be learned. Satisfies basic human need. Satisfies basic human need. Ex: Food, sleep Ex: Food, sleep Secondary Reinforcer Secondary Reinforcer Value has to be learned Without conditioning, it would have no +/- value Ex: $, Praise, Hug, Grades

18 Providing Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcement given every time desired behavior occurs Reinforcement given every time desired behavior occurs Partial Reinforcement Partial Reinforcement Reinforcement only given sometimes after desired behavior occurs.

19 Online Activity PsychSim 5.0 “Operant Conditioning” PsychSim 5.0 “Operant Conditioning” g5e/content/psychsim5/Operant%20Condi tioning/PsychSim_Shell.html g5e/content/psychsim5/Operant%20Condi tioning/PsychSim_Shell.html g5e/content/psychsim5/Operant%20Condi tioning/PsychSim_Shell.html g5e/content/psychsim5/Operant%20Condi tioning/PsychSim_Shell.html This activity will review classical and operant conditioning and introduce you to schedules of reinforcement. This activity will review classical and operant conditioning and introduce you to schedules of reinforcement.

20 4 Schedules of Partial Reinforcement Ratio Schedule Ratio Schedule # of correct responses subject makes between reinforcement # of correct responses subject makes between reinforcement Interval Schedule Interval Schedule Amt of time that passes before reinforcement given Amt of time that passes before reinforcement given Rate of Reinforcement: Rate of Reinforcement: Fixed Fixed If time or # of responses is constant Variable Variable If time or # of responses is random

21 4 Schedules of Partial Reinforcement Fixed-Ratio Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement occurs after specific, unchanging # of responses. Reinforcement occurs after specific, unchanging # of responses. Variable-Ratio Variable-Ratio Reinforcement occurs after unpredictable # of responses. Reinforcement occurs after unpredictable # of responses. Fixed-Interval Fixed-Interval Reinforcement occurs after set amt of time Variable-Interval Variable-Interval Reinforcement occurs at unpredictable time interval

22 Activity Schedules of Reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement

23 Activity Operant Practice Operant Practice (Principles and Reinforcement Schedules)

24 Closure What is the difference between operant and classical conditioning? What is the difference between operant and classical conditioning?


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