2 Objectives Describe and apply components of operant conditioning. Identify B.F. Skinner.Analyze uses and effectiveness of reinforcement and punishment.Describe reinforcement schedules.
3 Warm Up What is learning? Relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience.
4 Review of Prior Learning You always talk to your (boy/girl) friend while sitting in your beanbag chair. After an ugly breakup, you find that even looking at the chair upsets you, so you give it to Goodwill.Identify the NS-UCS-UCR-CS-CRWhat would be occurring if you couldn’t sit in any chair while talking on the phone?What if you only refused to sit in beanbag chairs?What if you go away to college and your roommate has a chair that makes you chuckle as you sit in it and think about the story?And this can only occur after it’s gone away which is called?
5 Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Environment provides the stimulus and the subject responds.OperantEnvironment responds to the subject’s behavior (stimulus).
6 Edward Thorndike Thorndike’s Law of Effect Rewarded behavior likely to recur
7 B.F. SkinnerBehavior influenced by history of its consequences
9 ShapingReward behaviors close to the behavior he was looking for until animal performed desired behavior.
10 Operant Conditioning Reward A.k.a. Positive Reinforcement Actions taken that result in consequencesBehavior more likely to occur againPunishmentActions taken that result in consequencesBehavior less likely to occur again
11 Operant Conditioning Negative Reinforcement Actions taken to avoid punishmentsBehavior more likely to occur againOmission TrainingActions taken which result in something being taken awayBehavior less likely to occur again
13 Introduction to Operant Conditioning “problems” ActivityIntroduction to Operant Conditioning “problems”When you’ve worked your way through the problem, identify which principle of operant conditioning is at work.( +R, -R, OT, P)+ Reinforcement: Give child dessert as soon as spinach eatenPunishment: send to room, yell if complaining beginsOmission: take dessert away if complaining begins- Reinforcement: eat spinach without complaining and you don’t have to eat your liver
14 Closure Day 1Use all 4 principles of operant conditioning to describe how you’d get a child to eat spinach without complaining.Premack Principle- Use more preferred activity to motivate you to do less preferred activity+ Reinforcement: Give child dessert as soon as spinach eatenPunishment: send to room, yell if complaining beginsOmission: take dessert away if complaining begins- Reinforcement: eat spinach without complaining and you don’t have to eat your liver
15 Day 2 Warm UpWhat’s the difference between classical and operant conditioning?Classical-subject responds to environmentOperant – environment responds to subject’s behavior.+ Reinforcement: Give child dessert as soon as spinach eatenPunishment: send to room, yell if complaining beginsOmission: take dessert away if complaining begins- Reinforcement: eat spinach without complaining and you don’t have to eat your liver
16 Review Which principle of operant conditioning… Presents something unpleasant?Takes something pleasant away?Takes something unpleasant away?Presents something pleasant?
17 Types of Reinforcers Primary Reinforcer Secondary Reinforcer Value doesn’t need to be learned.Satisfies basic human need.Ex: Food, sleepSecondary ReinforcerValue has to be learnedWithout conditioning, it would have no +/- valueEx: $, Praise, Hug, GradesTrain dog to “sit”.Stimulus = “Sit” Behavior is sittingIf sit, the dog gets treat, which is primary reinforcerAs feed, say “good dog”, which is secondary reinforcerRepeat process often, gradually give dog less food, will still sit b/c “Good Dog” becomes reinforcement.
18 Providing Reinforcement Continuous ReinforcementReinforcement given every time desired behavior occursPartial ReinforcementReinforcement only given sometimes after desired behavior occurs.
19 Online Activity PsychSim 5.0 “Operant Conditioning” This activity will review classical and operant conditioning and introduce you to schedules of reinforcement.
20 4 Schedules of Partial Reinforcement Ratio Schedule# of correct responses subject makes between reinforcementInterval ScheduleAmt of time that passes before reinforcement givenRate of Reinforcement:FixedIf time or # of responses is constantVariableIf time or # of responses is random
21 4 Schedules of Partial Reinforcement Fixed-RatioReinforcement occurs after specific, unchanging # of responses.Variable-RatioReinforcement occurs after unpredictable # of responses.Fixed-IntervalReinforcement occurs after set amt of timeVariable-IntervalReinforcement occurs at unpredictable time interval
22 Schedules of Reinforcement ActivitySchedules of Reinforcement
23 (Principles and Reinforcement Schedules) ActivityOperant Practice(Principles and Reinforcement Schedules)
24 ClosureWhat is the difference between operant and classical conditioning?