3DefinitionTolerance Level – the line which distinguishes between behaviors that will and will not be accepted as appropriate.
4Appropriate Tolerances Instead of ignoring inappropriate behavior…TEACH!TEACH!!Instead of prompting inappropriate behavior…TEACH!!Instead of just issuing a consequence…
5DefinitionCorrective Teaching – a spontaneous approach that provides a positive and systematic way of confronting and managing inappropriate behavior and teaching the youth a more appropriate behavior.Corrective Teaching empowers youth by giving them the information they need to make choices about their behaviors.
6Benefits Teaches social skills Helps youth with skill/competency deficitsAids in relationship buildingEnhances staff effectiveness
7When To Use Corrective Teaching Use Corrective Teaching when…A youth has behaved inappropriately and you want to teach him/her a new skillA youth has behaved inappropriately and you want to strengthen a skill that has already been taught
8Quality Components Using youth’s name Quiet voice Same physical plane Pleasant facialsPositionPhysical touchBody language
9Steps in Corrective Teaching Initial praise/empathyDescription of inappropriate behaviorConsequencePositive motivation statementDescription of appropriate behaviorRationaleAcknowledgmentDemonstrationYouth practiceFeedbackPositive consequenceCued practiceGeneral praise
10Description of Inappropriate Behavior Sets tolerances and expectationsHelps youth recognize and take responsibility for their behaviorJudgmentalDescriptionsExample: “You didn’t Accept ‘No’ when I said you couldn’t have an extra snack because you asked,’Why?’.”
11Consequences Serves as a deterrent Helps show connection between action and outcomeShould range from least to most restrictive, whileproviding the greatest opportunity for youth learningensuring staff fairnessYOU HAVE EARNED!!!Example: “For not Accepting ‘No’, you have earned -2,000.” This helps the youth take ownership of or responsibility for their behaviors.
12Positive Motivation Statement Demonstrates fairness and concernKeeps the interaction positiveCan earn up to 1/2 back - this is not guaranteedExample: “Now I am going to have you practice Accepting ‘No’, and you can earn up to half your points back.”
13Description of Appropriate Behavior Sets expectations for appropriate behaviorIncreases likelihood youth will internalize appropriate behaviorIncludes transitional statements such as, “A better choice…”, “Whenever anyone”…”, or “Next time…”Example: “Next time someone gives you a ‘No’ answer, you need to look at that person, have a pleasant face and voice, say ‘Okay’, and stop talking about it.”
14Positive ConsequenceReinforces appropriate alternative & increases likelihood of future useBuilds relationships with the youthDemonstrated fairnessComponents: a. Positive points b. Label skill c. Describe Specific Behavior d. Youth Asks to Have Card SignedExample: “For practicing “Accepting No”, you have earned back 1,000 positive points. The specific behavior is ‘said okay’.”
15Praise Ends interaction positively Aids in maintaining the relationshipComponents: a. General praiseb. Re-direction statementExample: “Super job practicing Accepting ‘No’! Now you can finish your homework.”
16Steps in Corrective Teaching Youth practiceFeedbackPositive consequenceCued practiceGeneral praiseInitial praise/empathyDescription of inappropriate behaviorConsequencePositive motivation statementDescription of appropriate behaviorRationaleAcknowledgmentDemonstration
18Teaching Interactions A far easier area to define, and thus to teach, is the process or steps in a good teaching interaction. These “process components” are simply a sequence of behaviors that have been found to be most successful in teaching new behaviors. A description of the process components and related quality components follows:Initial Praise and Affection or EmpathyInitiation the teaching interaction on a positive note indicates to the youth that the Family Teacher is pleased to see her/him, likes to interact with her/him and is concerned about any problems she/her may be having. One way of beginning positively is to take note of any ongoing behaviors that deserve the your that the Family Teacher is aware of what she/he has already accomplished and helps to establish the tenor of the interaction to be one of helpful teaching rather than criticism.
19Teaching Interactions Examples of Initial Praise“It’s great that you got a ‘C’ on your school note”“I can see you’ve really been working hard’“I appreciate your bringing that to my attention”“Thanks for looking at me while we’re talking”Examples of Initial Empathy“ I understand that it is sometimes difficult to receive criticism”“I can see that you are upset”“I can appreciate that your homework is frustrating”
20Teaching Interactions Quality ComponentsThe Style of expressing affection will vary with each Family Teacher. Some Family Teachers have easy smiles and others have pleasant facial expressions and voice qualities that they use to express affection. Others have a manner of joking and playfulness that they use to begin interactions in a friendly and affectionate way. Some Family Teachers have a very pleasant style of physical contact that involves putting their arm around the youths shoulders and hugging her/him a little. Generally, the following behaviors add to the pleasantness of the “Initial Praise” statements:-Good eye contact-Physical proximity or contact-Smile, and-a voice tone and inflection conveying enthusiasm (not monotone)
21Teaching Interactions Description of Inappropriate BehaviorOften a person reprimanding or correcting a youth will use such general or vague terms that the youth is aware that he/she did something wrong but unaware of what it was exactly about his/her behavior that was wrong. A classic example of this is saying, “You’ve got a rotten attitude.” This statement by itself gives the youth no information about what he/she is doing that conveys a “rotten Attitude” and thus serves only to criticize or punish the youth. Telling the your, “You are looking down and mumbling.” however, gives the youth specific information about his/her behavior and as such is viewed as less of an attack and more of an attempt to teach. Talking the time to be specific is way of communication concern.Other example of Vague or general statements of inappropriate behavior are:“Your manners were terrible.”“You’re acting like you’re made.”“That kind of talk is disrespectful.”
22Teaching Interactions In each case, the youth must try to interpret what the Family Teacher means. It is not clear what is meant by “manners” and “acting mad.” These general statements can be used, however, if they are followed with specific example to clarify their meaning. Some example of “terrible Manners” might include:“You had your elbows on the table”“You started talking with you mouth full of food”“You didn’t pass the milk when you were asked”Behaviors that are difficult to describe verbally can usually be conveyed adequately by acting them out. It is easier, for example, to act out facial expressions, body gestures, and tones of voice that it is to attempt to describe them in words.
23Teaching Interactions Quality ComponentsIn describing the inappropriate behavior, the more a Family teacher uses a “matter of fact” tone of voice, the less likely she/he is to sound punitive. If the Family Teacher wants to sound punitive by using her/his own voice tone as an aversive consequence, it would probably be best not to attempt a teaching interaction at that point in time.Negative ConsequencesSocial Learning Theory teaches us that a behavior is influenced by its consequences or, in other words, what follows a behavior influences its recurrence. Therefore, in order to decrease the likelihood that the negative behavior will occur again in the future, the Family Teacher must provide a response cost or negative consequence which, in a Teaching-Family home is generally negative points.
24Teaching Interactions Positive Correction StatementWhenever a Family Teacher criticizes and provides a response cost for a negative behavior so that the child may have a positive skill to add to his/her repertoire as a replacement for the inappropriate behavior. In order for the child to be motivated to attend to the Family Teacher’s teaching and to attempt to learn the new skill, a positive correction statement precedes the teaching of the alternative appropriate behavior. A positive correction statement alerts the child to the fact that there is away in which he/she can earn back some of the lost points. A positive correction statement is “you can being to earn some of those pints back by…” or “you now have an opportunity to start earning some of those points back by…”.
25Teaching Interactions Description of Appropriate or Alternative BehaviorDescribing the appropriate or alternative behavior introduces the youth to the behavior the Family Teacher wants to teach her/him. Just as in describing the inappropriate behavior, it is important to describe the appropriate behavior in terms of specific behaviors. The less the youth is required to interpret general or vague statements like “Try being more enthusiastic,” the she/he is likely to understand what the Family Teacher is trying to communicate. If the Family Teacher wants the youth to be more enthusiastic, for example, he/she should define for the youth what is meant by the term, i.e., “You would appear more enthusiastic if you talked a little louder, looked at me, stood up straight, and smiled a little.” Also, if the behavior being taught is somewhat complex, it will sound much clearer and less difficult if described in small steps.
26Quality ComponentsThe pleasantness of an interaction can be affected by the Family Teacher's choice of words. For example, in describing the alternative behavior, using phrases such as "You should" or "You ought" can make the Family Teacher sound judgmental or dictatorial. Less demanding phrases that can be used in their place are:"It would be better if...""How about..." or"What I'd like you to try is..."
27RationaleAs soon as the Family Teacher has described the alternative behavior he/she should give the youth a reason or rationale as to why it may 'beimportant or benefit the youth to engage in that particular behavior. A detailed discussion of this component is presented in the section entitled"Rationales." In brief review, however, some of the reasons for giving rationales include:A youth is more apt to perceive the, Family Teacher as less arbitrary and more concerned if rationales are given;A youth is more apt to recognize the real life consequences of his/her actions if they have been pointed out to him/her through a rationale; andA youth is more likely to engage in the new behavior if he/she can see some way that it will be of benefit to him/her.
28RationaleA good rationale should be as brief as possible, point out the natural positive or negative consequences of a behavior versus consequences controlled by the Family Teachers, and show how the consequences relate directly to the youth versus his/her home, his/her parents, other youths, etc. For example, simply stating that there is a "rule" about a behavior would fulfill only the first of these criteria. Stating why a rule exists and how that may benefit. the youth; however, would fulfill the latter two criteria. Many new Family Teachers have found it helpful to memorize some of the rationales given in the "Rationales" section of the manual to maximize clarity and brevity during a teaching interaction.
29RationaleGiving a youth a reason for doing something can set the stage for a long discussion or even argument about the validity of the rationale. In most cases, however, this can be avoided if the Family Teacher keeps in mind and explains to the youth that he/she is not expected to agree with the given rationale. He/she should, however, be asked if he/she understood what was said, i.e., was the rationale stated clearly enough that the youth could repeat it? Giving a rationale, therefore, should never be used as coercive logic for why a youth should perform some behavior. Rather, it gives the youth information as to why the Family Teacher believes the new behavior is important enough, to take the time and energy to teach it.
30RationaleThis is also an' excellent time to verbalize one's concern for a youth. It is out of concern for the youth's well-being that the Family Teacher points out the likely consequences of the youth's behavior. The Family Teacher should take every opportunity to communicate this concern rather than assume that .the youth knows he/she is being taught something for his/her own welfare. This can be stated very simply as follows:If you apologize to the teacher, she/he's more likely to let you back in class (rationale). I'm saying this because I'm concerned about you and your being able to complete school so you can do some of the things you want to do.
31Rationale Demonstrate Whenever possible it is extremely helpful for the Family Teacher to demonstrate the desired behavior during or after its verbal description. a demonstration not only helps to clarify the verbal description but also provides for the youth a visual image of the new behavior which is easier to remember than verbal instructions. It is particularly useful to demonstrate behaviors that are difficult to describe in words such as facial expressions, gestures, and voice tones.
32Quality ComponentsThe Family Teacher may begin lecturing the youth at this point, thinking "If I can only give him/her enough reasons for why he/she should do this, he/she will see the logic of it and have no excuse for not doing it." This approach is almost always bound to fail since the youth will probably feel he/she is being "preached at" and become angry at worst, or bored at best. One or two brief rationales will usually keep the youth's interest and adequately serve the purpose of providing information to the youth as to why the Family Teacher wants to teach this behavior (not to provide motivation for the youth to engage in the behavior). Lecturing can be an effective consequence, but generally hinders the effectiveness of a teaching interaction.
33AcknowledgementThroughout the teaching interaction, the Family Teacher should frequently request the youth to indicate whether or not she/he understands or hears what the Family Teacher is saying. Brief questions like "Do you understand?" "Okay?" "Could you repeat, that for me, please?" and "Are you with me so far?" prompt the youth to ask any questions she/he may have. It also allows the Family Teacher to find out whether or not the youth has been listening and how well she/he understands what has been said. It is usually quite aversive for the Family Teacher if the youth is completely unresponsive throughout the teaching interaction.
34Quality ComponentsFor the individual whose verbal style is somewhat wordy, the component of requesting acknowledgement is an invaluable aid. Asking the youth to say something, even "Okay," quickly turns a monologue into a dialogue. One pitfall to avoid with this component, however, is not pausing long enough to allow the youth time to respond to a question such as "Okay?" Taking for granted that the youth understands or is listening may not only be a false assumption but also may be interpreted by the youth as a lack of concern or interest in what she/he has to say.
35PracticeHaving the youth practice the new behavior is probably the most powerful step in the teaching process. It is at this point that the youth must translate the verbal and visual descriptions of the new behavior into his/her own performance. The Family Teacher can immediately see how well the youth understands the new behavior and can encourage and prompt him/her during this trial practice period until the youth can perform the new behavior with minimal or no instructions. Depending on the difficulty of the new behavior, this component may be repeated several times with additional demonstrations or instructions required. If the youth has difficulty performing the new behavior, it should be broken down into smaller and smaller steps until the youth is able to perform at least one step correctly. The difficulty of the behavior, a knowledge of the youth's abilities, and good judgment are needed to determine how many times a youth should be asked to practice a new behavior at any one sitting. Once a youth has been through a complete teaching interaction and shown some improvement during the practice component, he/she can be given plenty of other opportunities in the days and weeks that follow to practice the new behavior.
36Quality ComponentsPracticing a new behavior with a youth is frequently an opportune time to help him/her view learning as a positive and even enjoyable experience. For example, a Family Teacher might assume a funny name or exaggerated voice when practicing introduction skills with a youth. Sometimes drawing one's spouse or other youths into the practice roles can add enthusiasm and fun to the interaction. Of course, one must be sensitive enough to the youth's reactions to make sure that he/she is experiencing attempts at humor as fun and not embarrassment.
37FeedbackWhile the youth is practicing the new behavior, the Family Teacher should provide her/him with positive feedback for those behaviors she/he is performing correctly and further instruction and prompting when needed. It is important to note that the practice component is not. a time to test the youth on the new behavior. Thus, it is best to avoid feedback that states that the youth is "wrong" or "incorrect." Phrases such as "It would be better, or "Another suggestion would be," not only decrease the test-like atmosphere, hut also demonstrate more respect for the youth on the part of the Family Teacher.It is important to give all pertinent praise and encouragement for any improvement. The more one praises the youth while she/he is practicing, the more the youth is likely to feel the Family Teacher believes in her/him which in turn will stimulate her/his own self confidence. It is important, however, to praise specific behaviors that the youth performs. General praisestatements such as "good" and "that's terrific" are far less descriptive and thus less powerful than statements such as "It's really good that you keep looking at me" or "The fact that you smiled made it that much more terrific."
38Quality ComponentsThe genuineness of one's feedback is greatly determined by the feedback the giver engages in during and after the time he/she is actually giving the feedback. Attaching praise statements to specific behaviors as described in the previous paragraph is one way of authenticating praise. The extent to which one communicates enthusiasm and approval through voice tone, facial expression and body movements also serves to strengthen or weaken praise statements. For example, saying, "You're really cleaning those dishes well" in a monotone while reading the mail will obviously sound insincere. It is particularly important not to praise a youth for behaviors in which she/he has shown no improvement. Telling a youth she/he has done something "fantastically" and then requesting her/him to practice it repeatedly over the next couple of weeks can seriously damage the believability of any future praise. If a youth has not reached the desired level of skill, she/he should be genuinely praised for any improvements she/he has demonstrated, and informed of the parts of the behavior that still need some work.
39ConsequencesGiving the youth some consequence for practicing the behavior, paying attention, and for specific improvements helps to increase his/her motivation, to perform the new behavior. This is particularly true for a youth who is trot yet motivated by praise alone. Points are usually the most readily available and versatile consequence that can be given at this time. It is especially important to give the youth some positive consequence at the conclusion of teaching interaction if he/she had been negatively cons equated at the beginning of the interaction for some inappropriate behavior.
40Cued PracticeThe Family Teacher should also take this time to inform the youth of opportunities he/she has in the future to perform the new behavior –and the positive consequences he/she will earn for doing so. To ensure that these types of opportunities occur, the Family Teacher may "set up" with the youth a specific cue so that the child will know he/she is going to practice the skill. For example, the Family Teacher might say, "in order for you to hate chance to practice the skill of following instructions and to can. some more positive points, 1 will find you in five minutes and tap you on the shoulder:. That will be your cue that I am about to give you an instruction that you should follow by using the four steps we just got done practicing.- Cued practice allows the Rind the opportunity to be successful with the newly learned skill in a slightly more real situation than the role play during the teaching interaction.
41General PraiseThe Family Teacher should always ensure that the interaction ends on a positive note so that the child perceives he/she is still liked despite the negative behavior the Family Teacher had to correct.