3Defining Arousal, Stress, and Anxiety StatesTrait
4Measuring Arousal and Anxiety Physiological signs (heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, biochemistry)Global and multidimensional self-report surveyse.g. Sport Anxiety Scale (trait anxiety)e.g. Sport Competition Anxiety Test (trait)e.g. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2
5Trait and State Anxiety Relationship High versus low trait anxious people usually have more state anxiety in highly evaluative situations.
6Stress and the Stress Process Define Stress:(continued)
8Stress and Stress Process Implications In what stages of the stress process can we intervene?How is stress best viewed?
9Sources of Stress and Anxiety Situational sources________________________Other?_________________________Personal sources________________________Other? _____________
10How Arousal and Anxiety Affect Performance Drive theoryInverted–U hypothesisIndividualized zones of optimal functioningMultidimensional anxiety theory
11Anxiety direction and intensity Significance of all these views How Arousal and Anxiety Affect PerformanceCatastrophe modelReversal theoryAnxiety direction and intensitySignificance of all these views
19Reversal TheoryHow arousal affects performance depends on an individual’s interpretation of his or her arousal level; assumption =performers can flip quicklyArousal can be interpreted as pleasant/excitement or as unpleasant/anxiety.Arousal interpreted as pleasant facilitates performance, and arousal interpreted as unpleasant hurts performance.
20Anxiety Direction and Intensity An individual’s _____________of anxiety symptoms is important for understanding the anxiety-performance relationship.Both the ______________________ (how much anxiety one feels) and __________________________ (one’s interpretation of anxiety as being facilitating or debilitating to performance) must be considered.(continued)
21Anxiety Direction and Intensity Viewing anxiety as facilitative leads to superior performance.Some support has been found for this view.
22Significance of All the Arousal–Performance Views Significance of All the Arousal–Performance Views **Arousal is multifaceted**_______________________________________________________________________
23Significance of All the Arousal–Performance Views __________________________________________________________________________
24Why Arousal and Anxiety Influence Performance Increased muscle tension and coordination difficultiesAttention and concentration changes: --
26Implications for Practice Interactional Model of Anxiety
27Implications for Practice Recognize arousal and state anxiety signs (feeling ill, dazed,muscle tension etc.)Tailor coaching strategies to individuals:Different strokes for different folks.Sometimes arousal and state anxiety must be reduced, other times maintained, and other times facilitated.Develop performers’ confidence.
28Recognize Symptoms of Arousal and State Anxiety Cold, clammy handsConstant need to urinateProfuse sweatingNegative self-talkDazed look in eyes(continued)
29Recognize Symptoms of Arousal and State Anxiety Feel illHeadacheCotton (dry) mouthConstantly sickDifficulties sleeping(continued)
30Recognize Symptoms of Arousal and State Anxiety Increased muscle tensionButterflies in stomachInability to concentrateConsistently perform better in non-evaluative situationsOthers? _______________________