2 POP QUIZ!!! WATER FACTS!!! What’s Do You Know about Water?
3 How much of the earth's water is ocean? B) 30%C) 75%D) 95%Answer 95%
4 What atoms make up a water molecule? A) ABCB) CO2C) CaD) H2OAnswer H2O
5 Which country has the highest average daily water use per person 1,268 gallons945 gallons1,565 gallons668 gallons334 gallonsA) CanadaB) AustraliaC ) United StatesD) JapanE) ChinaAnswer the United States (Estimate includes water used to make things consumed in the home as well as water directly used within the home)
6 The human body is made up of _____% water. C) 66%D) 30%Answer 66% (actually varies from 55 to 78% depending on body size)
7 Ground Water enters ocean Ground Water CondensationPrecipitationRun-offEvaporationInfiltrationFresh Water StorageRun-offReview key processes:EvaporationCondensationPrecipitation (talk about forms – rain, snow, hail etc)Surface flow = run offInfiltration = water moving into soil becoming part of GROUND WATERGround Water enters oceanGround Water
9 GroundwaterThis graphic reinforces idea that the ocean is the biggest part of planet’s waterBreaks down the precious fresh water segment. Note largest part is frozen in ice, mostly at the 2 polesAfter that next biggest amount of water is groundwater
10 AquiferWater-bearing rock readily transmits water to wells and springsPrecipitation eventually adds water into the porous rock of the aquifer.Ground water is mostly found stored in porous rocks called aquifers
11 In New Jersey and many other places, much of the water that we use in our homes comes not from rivers or streams but from aquifers. We access that water by building wells. When we do this, there is less water in the aquifers, which start to dry out.
12 Focus on the Barnegat Bay Water in your Home Ecosystem
13 42 miles Long. Not very deep (average about 5 feet) 42 miles Long. Not very deep (average about 5 feet). Deep channel in middle is maintained by dredging.Opens to ocean via Barnegat Inlet, BayHead-Manasquan Canal (Manasquan Inlet), Little Egg Harbor Inlet. Areas near openings salty. Areas near rivers fresher. Separated from ocean by the Island Beach and Long Beach Barrier Islands13
14 Barnegat Bay Watershed Lands vary from coastal dune, marshes, interior pine barrensCovers 660 square miles of water, pinelands, towns, and open space!Watershed is “all of the Elevated Land that drains into a given body of water”For Barnegat Bay, this includes the ground water and surface water from rivers like Toms River, Metedeconk, Cedar Creek and Mill Creek500,000 people live in watershed. Nearly a Million!!! In the summer14
15 Point Pleasant Boardwalk Metedeconk River Toms RiverHuddy ParkSeaside Heights BoardwalkBeachwood ElementaryWilliam Dudley ParkIsland Beach State ParkClamming CreekSome places of ibterest15
16 Island Beach State Park Beachwood ElementaryHuddy ParkToms RiverClamming CreekMetedeconk RiverIsland Beach State ParkPoint Pleasant BoardwalkSeaside Heights BoardwalkWilliam Dudley Park16
17 Barnegat Bay EstuaryEstuary is the point at the end of a river where freshwater and seawater mix resulting in salt levels that are higher than freshwater and lower than the ocean (brackish water)Barnegat gets water from surface run off (rivers and streams) and from ground water (aquifers). When humans remove water from the rivers streams and aquifers, less fresh water flows into the estuary and this changes the balance of salinity within the estuary (in this case within the Barnegat Bay)17
18 Salinity levels along an estuary OceanRiverFresh water flowSalinity levels In an estuary vary depending on location (near the river is fresher, near the ocean is saltier)The more water flows in to the estuary from river and ground water, the larger the area of low salt (brackish water) within the estuary. A bunch of unique animals live in brackish water habitats. When humans use more water, the levels of river and groundwater flow go down, and the estuary gets saltier, leaving less brackish habitat for those animals.
19 Organisms of the Barnegat Bay Estuary More than 180 species of algae (mostly tiny phytoplankton) reported from Barnegat BayHome to more than 100 species of fishMany species of crab, shrimp, snail, clam etc. live under its watersThousands of waterbirds nest on its beaches and fish in its watersSome of the animals that are associated with brackish habitats includeDeposit Feeders: Mussels, barnacles, crabs, amphipods, free swimming mysids (a kind of shrimp), worms, crustaceans, and clamsBottom feeding: white flounder, bluefish, weakfish, summer flounder, menhaden, black sea bass19
20 Some of the animals that are associated with brackish habitats include Deposit Feeders: Mussels, barnacles, crabs, amphipods, free swimming mysids (a kind of shrimp), worms, crustaceans, and clamsBottom feeding: white flounder, bluefish, weakfish, summer flounder, menhaden, black sea bass20
21 What is a food chain?A food chain is “a sequence of organisms, each of which uses the next, lower member of the sequence as a food source1”
22 What is a producer?An organism that creates it’s own food, usually through photosynthesisWhat can you think of that might be the most common source of energy for all producers?The SUN
23 Important facts about food chains In a food chain, each organism obtains energy from the one at the level below.Plants are called producers because they create their own food through photosynthesisAnimals are consumers because they cannot create their own food, they must eat (consume) plants or other animals to get the energy they need.
24 Primary ProducersPrimary producers are “organisms capable of producing their own food”We can also say that they are photosynthetic, use light energy.Examples of primary producers include algae, phytoplankton, and large plants.Primary producers are eaten by primary consumers (herbivores)
25 Primary Producers of Barnegat Bay EelgrassDiatomsThese plants and algae are the base of the food chain. Many are very sensitive to salinity and will only grow in brackish habitats,Eel grass is key to a healthy bay. It is not just food but provides a place to live / hide for lots of animals. Without eelgrass many of the animals in the bay could not survive. When nutrients are added the algae like diatoms and flagellates can grow very strongly and they shade out the eelgrass making it die because it can’t get enough light for photosynthesis. Thus CLEAN (not polluted with nutrients) BRACKISH (mix of fresh and salt) water is needed for this plant to thrive and thus for a healthy ecosystem in the Barnegat BayDinoflagellatesMicroflagellates
26 Four types of consumer Herbivores: animals that eat only plants Carnivores: animals that eat only other animalsOmnivores: animals that eat animals and plantsDetritivores: Animals that eat dead materials and organic wastes (aka decomposers)
27 Other Ways to Classify Consumers Primary Consumers: HerbivoresSecondary Consumers: Carnivores that eat herbivoresTertiary Consumers: Carnivores that eat other carnivores
28 Primary Consumers in Barnegat Bay Grass Cerith (a type of snail; eats mostly Eelgrass)
29 Primary Consumers in Barnegat Bay Eelgrass Pill Bug (eats Eelgrass)
30 Secondary Consumers Blue Crab (eats worms, snails, etc.)
31 Tertiary ConsumersEat other animals in marsh including voles, fish, and other types of birdsOspreySandpiper
33 DetritivoreWorms are common detritivores in many ecosystems including Barnegat Bay
34 What is a food web?A food web is “an interlocking pattern of food chains”
35 Barnegat Bay Estuary1 Eel grass 2. Eaten by Amphipod which is eaten by (3) Stickleback Clam (eats algae esp diatoms). 5 Blue crab eats clam, fish and even amphipods and 6 Striped Bass Eat clams, crabs other fish and amphipods35
36 Human Impact on Barnegat Bay Estuary Estuaries are fragile ecosystems and so are susceptible to disturbancesEstuaries are threatened by impacts from human activitiesCoastal erosionWater pollutionHabitat destructionExcess Water ConsumptionIf we increase population without changing behavior We increase water consumptionWe decrease ground water and Fresh water, increase amount of salt water in bay And decrease the brackish water area Decreases the special species that thrive thereAlso more people = more pollution, more habitat turned to homes, roads and stores (habitat destruction)Coastal erosion can result when people walk on dunes or remove the plants there to build their homes and boardwalks36
37 Why Care?Water supply for seaside towns such as Seaside Heights and Point Pleasant Beach affectedWell for water supply ina coastal townNormally the light blue (freshwater) is running down hill and PUSHES out into the ocean keeping the salt out. BUTIf we pull too much freshwater from aquifers, we actually start to pull salt water into those rocks from the ocean.Then a well that went down into the aquifer in a seaside town would start to fill with brackish rather than fresh water37
38 Why Care?Too much salt water intrusion into estuary (resulting from low river flow) can make certain animals in estuary die, along with grasses they eat.About 85% of the fish and shellfish sold in world spend all or part of lives in estuariesIf we pull too much freshwater from aquifers, we actually start to pull salt water into those rocks from the ocean.This “intrusion” of saltwaterSalt water intrusion into the usual brackish mix causes problems in drinking water.Seaside towns such as Seaside Heights and Point Pleasant Beach affectedToo much salt water intrusion into estuary can make certain species in estuary die along with grasses they eat.About 85% of the fishes and shellfishes sold in world spend all or part of lives in estuaries38
39 Why Care?Desalination plants (top) may be needed to get freshwater to drink / bathe in (expensive)Too much salt in estuary may cause species that need the lower salinities to die
40 As more people move into the water shed, more water is withdrawn from aquifers, rivers and streams. This means less water flows into the bay, causing it to get saltier. This in turn means that many of the animals and plants that usually live there are no longer able to survive.