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Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ1 Strategic Options Development and Analysis The Principles.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ1 Strategic Options Development and Analysis The Principles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ1 Strategic Options Development and Analysis The Principles

2 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ2 Why maps? SODA works by constructing and analyzing cognitive maps The usefulness of cognitive mapping has gained currency during the last twenty years Bryant J (1984) Modelling alternative realities in conflict and negotiation. Journal of the Operational Research Society 35(11): Langfield-Smith K (1992) Exploring the need for a shared cognitive map. Journal of Management Studies 29(3): Fiol CM (1992) Maps for managers: Where are we? Where do we go from here? Journal of Management Studies 29(3): Kitchin RM (1994) Cognitive maps: what are they and why study them? Journal of Environmental Psychology 14(1): 1-19 Nicolini D (1999) Comparing methods for mapping organizational cognition. Organization Studies 20(5): Daniels K, Johnson G (2002) On trees and triviality traps: locating the debate on the contribution of cognitive mapping to organizational research. Organization Science 23(1): Tegarden DP, Sheetz SD (2003) Group cognitive mapping: a methodology and system for capturing and evaluating managerial and organizational cognition. OMEGA The International Journal of Management Science 31(2): Kane M, Trochim WMK (2007) Concept Mapping for Planning and Evaluation. Sage: Thousand Oaks the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Florida University System, Cmap tools program that ‘empowers users to construct, navigate, share and criticize knowledge models represented as concept maps’ (see A string of mind mapping gurus have emerged, the most famous being Tony Buzan, the self-proclaimed ‘inventor of mind mapping’ (Buzan, 2002; see also … no matter whether one calls them concept maps, cognitive maps, or mind maps, particular structures have spawned spidergrams, bubble diagrams, logic diagrams, and tree diagrams (to name but a few)

3 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ3 The mapping approach offered by Operational Research Operational research offers its own version of cognitive mapping: Strategic Options Development and Analysis, or SODA. What differentiates SODA from other cognitive mapping approaches is its basis in George Kelly’s psychological theory of personal constructs. Although SODA does not pretend to appropriate Kelly’s theory en masse, it does borrow two key ideas: one theoretical, and one procedural

4 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ4 George Kelly’s theory Highly developed Books Kelly GA (1955/1991) The Psychology of Personal Constructs. 2nd edn. Routledge: London Kelly GA (1963) A Theory of Personality: The Psychology of Personal Constructs. Norton: London. Kelly GA (1970) A brief introduction to personal construct theory. In Bannister D (ed.), Perspectives in Personal Construct Theory. Academic Press: London pp Journals International Journal of Personal Construct Psychology among others... Kelly’s central theme is the manner in which human beings understand the world through mental constructs

5 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ5 George Kelly’s theory Interested in uncovering the meaning behind what we say, and thus minimize ambiguity He noted that problems tend to be analyzed or interpreted according to the type of analyst one consults: a Freudian/Jungian analyst will structure and analyze according to Freudian/Jungian principles; A Behaviorist would most probably analyze the situation and draw conclusions in terms of conditioning This implies that the frame of reference of the analyst delimits what is perceived, how it is described, and what the ultimate prescription might be Kelly’s objective was to devise a theory, coupled with an analytical technique, which would remove (as far as possible) the analyst’s frame of reference (i.e. bias), and so undertake problem description and resolution from the client’s point of view

6 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ6 The new role of the analyst Where once the analyst was seen as some type of specialist in the contents of the mind, s/he would now be appreciated more as a process facilitator specializing in structuring the client’s thoughts as the client sees them This view of analysis, and of the role of the analyst, underpins SODA what the client needs is help in structuring complex perceptions so that the client him/herself can then resolve the problem using this structure

7 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ7 Kelly’s basic procedure Reality, and what we make of it, is constituted by contrasts, rather than absolutes Any individual understands a phenomenon in terms of constructs A construct is constituted by a contrast A person is pleasant Not pleasant is not a contrast – it is the negative What is the particular contrast which is being implicitly conveyed? Pleasant… rude (here, pleasant includes politeness) Pleasant… exciting (here, pleasant includes placidity: merely pleasant, maybe even a bit boring) In this way, constructs open up the world of human understanding Any model structured according to constructs differentiates at least two views of the world This is useful because in one model we can identify a strategy which leads somewhere as opposed to following another (opposite) strategy which leads somewhere else  we can thus compare and contrast strategies SODA does exactly this

8 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ8 Understanding Kelly’s basic approach through a contemporary example negative available contrasts

9 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ9 SODA Maps They represent subjective data meaningfully and transparently through a process of cause and effect They facilitate decision making, problem solving, and negotiation in organizational contexts They act as documents of clear argumentation Visual aid for comprehending the perceptions of problem owners discovering otherwise hidden aspects of the problem Alternative strategies (stemming from thinking in opposites) Feedback loops (stemming from the network structure of cognitive maps)

10 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ10 SODA: Interdisciplinary range SODA maps [Di]Graph Theory Topology Blockmodeling Cartography Graph drawing [Social] Network Theory Graph Mining Repertory Grids Matrix Theory Psychology System Theory Epistemology We want a tool that: Models thoughts Models choices Incorporates multiple variable- types Enables creativity and analysis Can deal with individuals and teams Helps attain a degree of disciplinary objectivity

11 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ11 SODA Map A model of the system of constructs used to communicate the problem The model has a particular structure Depending on its position in the structure, a construct may be an option/means/constraint or an outcome/end/objective. The meaning of a construct is enhanced through its relationship to other constructs

12 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ12 Model structure Outcomes (Head) Strategic options Operational options/constraints (Tail) Strategic options, sometimes called strategic directions, are options which have no other options above them in the map, but which are below the outcomes. Alternative structures are available Note, although the bottom-up structure is recommended, it is not a rule.

13 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ13 Linking constructs A SODA map is composed of interlinked constructs The links are arrows Arrows are positive or negative Positive arrows have no symbol Negative arrows have a –ve symbol - +ve link -ve link

14 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ14 Understanding SODA thru SODA

15 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ15 Merged maps Individual maps structure the understanding of each individual involved in the situation A holistic appreciation of the group’s understanding requires a merged map Groups maps may be created by merging individual maps similar constructs are merged into one constructs from key members of the group should be retained a balance of constructs from all members of the group should be present the facilitator may suggest the addition/deletion of constructs and links

16 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ16 Merging maps

17 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ17 Clusters Maps consist of interacting constructs Therefore a map is system of constructs It is possible to identify groups of constructs within the map – sub-systems of constructs known as clusters A cluster of constructs is one that refers to a particular issue Aside from a map being a system of constructs, therefore, a map is also a system of interrelated clusters, each of which addresses a particular issue Identification of clusters allows one to highlight the main issues of a situation, and the interrelations between them

18 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ18 Unclustered map

19 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ19 Clustered map complexity Rep Grid Theory richness constrain negotiative power grid for projects unclustered constructs

20 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ20 Color-coding clusters

21 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ21 Things to note about clusters They usually have a head or two Cluster with numerous heads usually indicate that a more attentive analysis is required A head may be considered as symbolizing an issue that acts upon the problem situation They usually have a number of tails that lead into a head A head of one cluster can act as one of the tails of another cluster

22 Dr. Ion Georgiou FGV-EAESP-IMQ22 References RAPW Chapter 2 Eden (1988) Cognitive mapping. European Journal of Operational Research 36(1): 1-13 Eden C, Jones S (1984) Using repertory grids for problem construction. Journal of the Operational Research Society 35(9): Brown S (1992) Cognitive mapping and repertory grids for qualitative survey research: some comparative observations. Journal of Management Studies 29(3): Ackermann A, Eden C, Brown I (2005) The Practice of Making Strategy: A Step-By-Step Guide. Sage: London Bryson JM, Ackermann F, Eden C, Finn CB (2004) Visible Thinking: Unlocking Causal Mapping for Practical Business Results. Wiley: Chichester


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