Presentation on theme: "Motivation: External and Internal. Psychological Needs Not necessary for survival like biological needs. Make life worth living. People engage in all."— Presentation transcript:
Psychological Needs Not necessary for survival like biological needs. Make life worth living. People engage in all kinds of activities unrelated to basic needs.
Why do we work? Support ourselves and our families. Pay bills. Most people enjoy work. Sense of purpose. Social aspect of being with other people.
Enjoy leisure activities. Retirement activities. Sun City, Florida. Sports, crafts, performance, social outreach. Everyone has role in community. Community run by volunteers.
Motivating people to get involved. Hope people will do what is best. Help out when needed. Avoid well-known risks. Sometimes we have to mold behavior.
Safer to wear seatbelts. Well-known that seatbelts save lives. Usage varies greatly. 51% in Mass before law. Now 76%. 91% in Calif 78% in CT Requirement and enforcement make a difference
Eventually internalized Starts extrinsic. Not wearing seatbelt might lead to punishment. Wearing reinforced by others and by vehicle. Put them on as a matter of habit. Becomes intrinsic.
Punishment and reinforcement. “Click it or ticket” Threat of punishment. Random checks. Car comes with warning buzzers. Stop if you buckle up. Reinforces wearing.
Developing skills String bass in corner Like to get back to playing it Boring to play bass part Need to join group Rewards of working together Concert coming up Positives outweigh negatives Lugging bass across campus
Environment controls behavior Extrinsic motivation. External rewards and punishments. Praise increase likelihood I’ll participate. Criticism decrease the likelihood. Principles of operant conditioning at work.
Effects on behavior Reinforcement Leads to an increase in behavior. Punishment Leads to a decrease in behavior.
Types of reinforcement Positive reinforcement: behavior leads to reward. Negative reinforcement: behavior removes pain or anxiety Ex: take pill for headache
Types of punishment Behavior leads to unpleasant outcome or takes away something pleasant. Goal of punishment is a decrease in unwanted behavior.
Rewards and punishments Add toTake away from Pleasant Positive reinforcement Type II punishment Unpleasant Type I punishment Negative reinforcement
Problems with punishment Negative feelings towards person giving punishment. Physical or psychological pain. Escalate in severity. Situational: substitute teacher syndrome. Less likely to internalize.
External versus internal Better to have intrinsic motivation. Behave not because you fear punishment or expect reward (external) But because you want to behave in a certain way. Motivation from within (intrinsic).
Ryan and Deci American Psychologist, 1/2000 Self-Determination Theory Facilitation of intrinsic motivation Described in Reeve Chapters 5 & 6. Chart on Reeve p 154.
Components of Intrinsic Motivation Autonomy: self-governing Competence: well-qualified, capable a.k.a self-efficacy Relatedness: support and affirmation from peers.
Extrinsic Motivation Needed when no intrinsic reasons Example: pay taxes Develop intrinsic over time Example: seat belt use. At first extrinsic: avoid tickets, alarms, nagging children Becomes internalized
Regulatory styles Ryan and Deci p. 72 (Reeve p. 154) Amotivation Non-regulation Don’t care about rewards and punishments. Lack of control. “They pretend to pay us and we pretend to work.”
Ryan and Deci table Motivation:Amotivation ExtrinsicIntrinsic Regulation: NoneExternalIntrinsic Locus of control: Impersonal ExternalInternal Regulation leads to Nonvaluing Incompetence Compliance Rewards and punishment Enjoyment Satisfaction
Continuum of Regulation External ------------------- Internal External regulation Compliance External rewards and punishments.
Internal regulation Synthesis with self-congruence. Agreement conforms to beliefs Goal is to get people to accept goals as their own. Move from compliance to self- regulation. Compliance with medication.
Facilitating Internalization Relatedness Desire to belong and feel connected. Group projects, share tasks Self-efficacy Improves chances of success Avoid early failures
Psychological needs Self-determination theory related to psychological needs. Extrinsic motivation not strongly related to well-being Wealth, fame and image. Well-being not enhanced by achievement of extrinsic goals.
Ryan and Deci, p 75 “Exposure to commercial media prompt a focus on materialism which provides fleeting satisfactions.” May seek extrinsic rewards to compensate for deficits in fulfilling basic psychological needs. Extrinsic rewards are insufficient and poor compensation.
Self actualization Promote autonomy and competence. Encourage natural potential for growth. Facilitating human achievement and well-being Provide social environment to support growth. “Hot house” Home, school, job.