Presentation on theme: "LECTURE 5 Attitudes and Behaviour"— Presentation transcript:
1LECTURE 5 Attitudes and Behaviour AdministrationWhat are attitudes?Origin of attitudesHow do we measure attitudes?Explicit versus implicit measuresIAT – how did you do?IAT videoBreakThe attitude-behaviour linkDo attitudes determine behaviour?Does behaviour determine attitudes?7) Next Class
2AttitudesDefinition:“An evaluation of a person, object, or idea”
4Attitudes towards: (Likert Scale) It is essential that all citizens exercise their right to vote if government is to effectively reflect the will of the people.Strongly StronglyDisagree AgreeHomelessness in Canada is a serious social problem that needs attention.I believe that a family with a mother and father is the best.
5Where do attitudes come from? (C) Cognitively Based AttitudesBased primarily on a person’s beliefs about the properties of an attitude object.“I like this vacuum cleaner because this one picks up more dirt”(A) Affectively Based AttitudesBased primarily on people’s feelings and values pertaining to the attitude objectCan be a sensory reaction (chocolate), conditioned (love warm comforters on rainy days), or value-based (anti-abortion)(B) Behaviourally Based AttitudesBased on an observation of how one behaves toward an attitude object“I recycled, so I must have a positive attitude toward environmental issues”Sometimes we might be ambivalent toward certain objects because of these different determinants (cigarettes).ABCs of attitudes
6How do we measure attitudes? Explicit vs. Implicit – Why Important?Explicit MeasuresLikert Scales (already shown)Evaluation ThermometerSemantic Differential ScaleModern Prejudice
10Modern Prejudice Scale strongly stronglydisagree agree1. Gay men are getting too demanding in their push forequal rights.2. Prejudice against gay men is still a problem.3. The government should not help make any special effort tohelp gay men because they should help themselves.
11How do we measure attitudes? Implicit MeasuresBogus PipelinesReaction Time Measures - IATPhysiological Measures – EEG and fMRI (brain activity), ECG (heart rate)
12Bogus Pipeline Studies Page & Sigall (1971) A bogus pipeline fools people into disclosing their attitudes by convincing them that a machine can be used to gauge their private attitudes.Participants hold a wheel that measures whether they agree with a statement or not. Electrodes are attached to their arm and the fake machine supposedly gauges their tendency to turn the wheel to the left (disagree) or to the right (agree). This attitude machine was demonstrated by showing participants how it worked on an attitude that they had expressed earlier.Once convinced that the machine worked, participants were asked about their racial attitudes. Compared to control conditions, who were not on the machine, these participants reported more negative attitudes toward Blacks.
13But is it possible that we are not even aware of our implicit attitudes? The Implicit Association Task and studies using physiological measure suggests that this may in some instances be the case.Did you test your Hidden Biases/Attitudes with the IAT?Which IAT did you do?What were the results?
14IAT BIAS Your results suggest: Strong automatic preference for * Moderate automatic preference for *Slight automatic preference for *Little or no automatic preference *Slight automatic preference for *Moderate automatic preference for *
19BLACK/WHITE IAT Your results suggest: Strong automatic preference for WhitesModerate automatic preference for WhitesSlight automatic preference for WhitesLittle or no automatic preferenceSlight automatic preference for BlacksModerate automatic preference for BlacksStrong automatic preference for Blacks
20BLACK/WHITE IAT Percentage of Total Respondents on IAT website Blacks/Whites IATPreference for Whites %Little or no preference %Preference for Blacks %
21Implicit Association Test (IAT) Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz (1998) Explicit vs. Implicit Measures of BiasIAT and Semantic Differential ScaleBlacks (/Whites)Bad ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ GoodWorthless ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ ValuableUnpleasant ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ PleasantVideo: Dateline on IAT
22Implicit Association Test (IAT) Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz (1998) Positive Ingroup Evaluations:Blacks vs. WhitesVideo: A girl like me
23But can the IAT predict behaviour? If so, what type of behaviour? Explicit ImplicitBehaviour Behaviourexplicit attitudes predict Yes Noimplicit attitudes predict No Yes
24The Attitude-Behaviour Link Do attitudes determine behaviour?What are the conditions under which attitudes predict behaviour?
25Attitudes can predict behaviour when: we minimize social influence on attitudesReduce social desirable responding (bogus pipeline, implicit measures)we match the level of specificity of attitudes and behavioursGeneral attitudes predict behaviours in generalSpecific attitudes predict specific behavioursThe theory of planned behaviourattitudes are strong
26General attitudes predict behaviours in general A general attitudes toward an object or a concept may not predict any specific behavior but if we average behaviours over many occasions, attitudes can predict behaviour.Principle of aggregation:A person’s religious attitude may not predict whether they go to church next weekend but it will predict the total number of a wide array of religious behaviours over time.
27Specific attitudes predict specific behaviours. A general attitude will often not predict a specific behavior.But when attitude measures are directly pertinent to the situation they will predict behavior in that situation.
28Theory of Planned Behavior Ajzen & Fishbein, 1985SpecificAttitudeBehaviourIntentions(Subjective)NormsBehavioralControl
29Theory of Planned Behavior Problems with this theory:It is very rationale and deliberative.Intentions are not great predictors of behaviour.Attitudes sometimes have a direct relationship to spontaneous, unintentional behaviour.It also can not explain habits which are very unthoughtful actions.This theory also does not take into account our implicit attitudes and how our behavior can also be influenced by these evaluations that are often quite different than our explicit attitudes.
30Strong attitudes predict behaviours (not all attitudes are equal) People with a strong attitude:Often have acquired more information about the attitude objectOften are personally involved with the attitude object. It is important to them.Often have had direct experience with an attitude object.Strong attitudes are important because they are more accessible. More accessible attitudes direct behaviour.(e.g., I think we must protect the environment.)
31The Attitude-Behaviour Link Do attitudes determine behaviour?Sometimes.Does behaviour determine attitudes?When and why?
32Why and when do behaviours change attitudes? e.g., Donating money to foreign aid.Self-Presentation (not actual attitude change)Self-Justification - Cognitive DissonanceSelf-Perception
33Self-PresentationTo appear consistent (and avoid appearing foolish), we express attitudes that match our actionsAssumes conscious awareness of the discrepancy between the real attitude and the presented attitudeNot genuine attitude change(e.g., If I donate money to a relief charity, I may state that I am more positive toward this charity if I am with women who saw me give money than if I was with a different group of women who did not witness my initial donation.)
34Self-Justification: Cognitive Dissonance Real change that occurs within the self.Tension arises when we are aware of inconsistencies in the selfYou realize that your behaviour doesn’t match your attitudeTo reduce that tension we often change our attitudes to fit the behaviour(e.g., I would state that I am more positive toward this charity even if I was with a different group of women who did not witness my initial donation or if no one was around.)
36Self-Justification: Cognitive Dissonance 1) Insufficient JustificationWe change our attitudes to be more consistent with our behaviours if we act in a certain way that is not consistent with our attitudes and we have no strong justification for acting in this way. If we do have a reasonable justification, we will not change our attitudes.
37Self-Justification: Cognitive Dissonance Classic Study: Festinger & Carlsmith (1959)How much I enjoyed the experiment (-5 to +5)
38Self-Justification: Cognitive Dissonance 2) Postdecisional DissonancePeople often reduce dissonance that is aroused after making a decision byincreasing their liking for the chosen item and- decreasing their liking for the rejected item.
39Post-decision Dissonance Schultz, Leveille, & Lepper (1999) Ask 13 year olds to rate the attractiveness of various posters.Some children were allowed to choose between 2 posters they rated very positively. After choosing, they rated the poster they rejected more negatively than they had previously.- Rejecting a positive objects produces dissonance. So you need to change your attitude toward positive object that you reject.Other children were allowed to choose between 2 posters they rated very negatively. After choosing, they rated the poster they chose more positively than they had previously.- Choosing a negative object produces dissonance. So you need to change your attitude toward negative object that chose. This effect was largest.
40Arousal and Cognitive Dissonance Dissonance and the pill (Cooper & Zanna, 1974)ProcedureSubjects were asked to write a counter-attitudinal essaybanning all speakers on campusEither an illusion of high choice or low choiceGiven a pill – told will be arousing, have no effect, or be relaxing (really a placebo)Examine attitude change
41Dissonance and the Pill Dissonance and the pill (Cooper & Zanna, 1974)
42Self-Perception Theory When unsure of our attitudes, we infer them by observing our behaviour.Examples, listening to country music channel (no one forcing me)Social EmbodimentOverjustification Effect
43Social EmbodimentRecent theorizing on embodiment suggest there is a close relationship between bodily feedback and higher cognitions. They assuming that actions and body movements can directly influence our thoughts and attitudes.For example, if we are evaluating cartoons when we holding a pen with a mouth that grins rather than a circular mouth, we will find the cartoons funnier.Likewise, if we are evaluating Chinese ideographs when we are pulling up on a table (upward flex) compared to when we are pushing down on a table (downward extend), we will like the object more.The feedback from our body influences our attitudes.
44Overjustification effect “The result of paying people to do what they already like doing,” may make the task less intrinsically motivated and less likely to occur.This effect occurs when someone offers an unnecessary reward beforehand in an effort to control behaviour.
45Overjustification effect Deci (1971) ProcedureMonitored participants who are initiallyallowed to play with puzzles.- ½ subjects paid to solve puzzles½ not paidNext removed all rewards for the paid group.Monitored who continued to work on the puzzle
46Overjustification effect Deci (1971) Amount of Time played with puzzles
47Overjustification Effect (Self-Perception Theory) Getting paid for something you want to do. Getting paid for doing puzzles when you like solving puzzles. No dissonance here – I like solving puzzles and I am solving puzzles. My attitude and my behaviour are consistent.However, self-perceptions may lead people to believe that by receiving an unnecessary reward for the behaviour they may not really like the task so much - - that they are just doing it for the money. They believe that the reason they are behaving like they are is because of extrinsic rather than intrinsic motivations.
48Underjustification Effect (Cognitive Dissonance Theory) Getting paid for something you don’t want to do. Getting paid to tell someone that a task is fun when your real attitude is that it is a boring task. Dissonance is that your behaviour and your attitudes are not consistent.Why am I telling this person it is a fun task when it is really boring – it can’t be because of the money ($1), it wasn’t enough to make me act that way, I must really like the task.