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PSYC4030 6.0DCBT Chapter 6 Chapter 6: Stimulus Control and Reinforcement Therapy.

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Presentation on theme: "PSYC4030 6.0DCBT Chapter 6 Chapter 6: Stimulus Control and Reinforcement Therapy."— Presentation transcript:

1 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Chapter 6: Stimulus Control and Reinforcement Therapy

2 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Stimulus Control: Antecedents 1.Prompting Cues that remind or instruct you to behave in a particular wayCues that remind or instruct you to behave in a particular way Verbal, environmental, physical, and behavioural promptsVerbal, environmental, physical, and behavioural prompts Fading: with repeated reinforcement, prompts become unnecessaryFading: with repeated reinforcement, prompts become unnecessary

3 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Stimulus Control: Antecedents 2. Setting Events Complex environmental conditions that influence the likelihood of behaviour occurringComplex environmental conditions that influence the likelihood of behaviour occurring Manipulation of setting events is often sufficient to produce behaviour changeManipulation of setting events is often sufficient to produce behaviour change Easy, efficient first interventionEasy, efficient first intervention Coupled with planned activity scheduling for desirable behaviors in old settingCoupled with planned activity scheduling for desirable behaviors in old setting

4 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Reinforcement: Consequences Arranging the consequences of a behaviour so that it is more likely to be performed again in the futureArranging the consequences of a behaviour so that it is more likely to be performed again in the future Not a reward, technicallyNot a reward, technically — rewards may not affect future behaviours what a reinforcer is a priori is unknownwhat a reinforcer is a priori is unknown Behavior therapy usually relies on positive reinforcementBehavior therapy usually relies on positive reinforcement

5 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Positive Reinforcers 1.Tangible: material objects, “stuff” 2.Social reinforcers: attention, praise, approval, acknowledgement Powerful natural reinforcer Powerful natural reinforcer 3.Token: symbolic items 4.Activities Everyday tasks Everyday tasks

6 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Premack Principle Use of any high frequency behaviour as a reinforcer for lower frequency behavioursUse of any high frequency behaviour as a reinforcer for lower frequency behaviours High frequency behaviours are not necessarily pleasurableHigh frequency behaviours are not necessarily pleasurable

7 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Identifying Potential Reinforcers 1.Questioning clients 2.Exposure to generalized reinforcers Catalogue method Catalogue method Reinforcement Survey Schedule Reinforcement Survey Schedule Pleasant Event Schedule Pleasant Event Schedule 3.Observing routine behaviours Based on Premack Principle Based on Premack Principle

8 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Pleasant Events Schedule (MacPhillamy & Lewinsohn, 1971)

9 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Pleasant Events Schedule (MacPhillamy & Lewinsohn, 1971)

10 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Identifying Potential Reinforcers Can be created by introducing generalized reinforcers that become attractive (I.e. video game)Can be created by introducing generalized reinforcers that become attractive (I.e. video game) Social reinforcers can serve here as well (modelling, approval)Social reinforcers can serve here as well (modelling, approval)

11 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Administering Reinforcers 1.Self-reinforcement and reinforcing agents (therapist, teacher, etc.) Moving to self-directed change Moving to self-directed change 2.Continuous vs. Intermittent reinforcers Initially continuous reinforcement will be used Initially continuous reinforcement will be used Moving to intermittent schedule Moving to intermittent schedule

12 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Intermittent Scheduling Increases likelihood of transfer, generalization, and long-term maintenanceIncreases likelihood of transfer, generalization, and long-term maintenance Mimics real life schedules of reinforcementMimics real life schedules of reinforcement Relies more on expectation of reinforcement than a continuous scheduleRelies more on expectation of reinforcement than a continuous schedule

13 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Intermittent Scheduling 1.Interval schedule: reinforcer given during a particular time interval (if behaviour is performed) paycheque paycheque 2.Ratio schedule: reinforcer given after behaviour is performed a particular number of times gambling gambling

14 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Reinforcement Guidelines 1.The contingency must be clear 2.Reinforcement is given immediately 3.Reinforcement is given consistently 4.Client must be aware of reinforcers 5.Move from continuous to intermittent reinforcement 6.Should be a preference for “natural” (real world) reinforcers 7.Maintain potency of reinforcer

15 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Shaping Necessary for teaching relatively complex behavioursNecessary for teaching relatively complex behaviours Only components of behaviour are reinforcedOnly components of behaviour are reinforced Reinforce successively closer approximations to the target behaviourReinforce successively closer approximations to the target behaviour

16 PSYC DCBT Chapter 6 Ethical Considerations What motivates us to do the things we do? 1.Intrinsic worth 2.Personal freedom 3.Bribing clients


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