Introduction Theoretical background Explicit cognition: "Cognition that we are aware of" - conscious operation - self-report possible - direct measurement (e.g., questionnaire) Implicit cognition: "Cognition that we are not aware of" - pre-conscious operation - self-report not possible - indirect measurement (e.g., response times)
Introduction Theoretical background Let me illustrate this with an example introducing a measure of implicit cognition at the same time here: ingroup attitudes (Norwegians' attitude towards Norwegians)
Introduction PLEASANT or NORWEGIAN UNPLEASANT Press "D" if... Press "K" if...
Introduction PLEASANT or NORWEGIAN UNPLEASANT Press "D" if... Press "K" if... Words shown here, e.g.: " Frida " " Evil " " Halvor " " Love "...
Introduction PLEASANTUNPLEASANT or NORWEGIAN Press "D" if... Press "K" if... New instructions
Introduction Data from: Trine Bekkmo & Linda Amundsen (2008, BA thesis) ~175 ms faster for "Norw. or Pleasant"~90% correct in both conditions
Introduction PerceptionBehavior Explicit cognition IF pleasant word OR Norwegian name THEN press "D" IF unpleasant word OR Norwegian name THEN press "K" Implicit cognition Explicit cognition: rule application
Introduction PerceptionBehavior Explicit cognition Halvor Unpleasant Love Pleasant Frida Norwegian Evil IF pleasant word OR Norwegian name THEN press "D" IF unpleasant word OR Norwegian name THEN press "K" Implicit cognition: spreading activation
Introduction PerceptionBehavior Explicit cognition Halvor Unpleasant Love Pleasant Frida Norwegian Evil IF pleasant word OR Norwegian name THEN press "D" IF unpleasant word OR Norwegian name THEN press "K" 175 ms response time difference due to this link
Introduction Why is the distinction important? Explicit cognition and implicit cognition differ w.r.t.: - the kinds of behaviors they predict (implicit cognition predicts spontaneous and unreflected behavior) - the environmental stimuli they respond to (implicit cognition is sensitive to unattended and subliminal stimuli) - the details of learning and information processing (e.g., implicit cognition does not understand negations) - etc.
Introduction My research plan Measure the strength of associations (to predict behavior better) Change the strength of associations (to change behavior) Investigate interaction of explicit and implicit cognition
Research plan Measurement, previous work Measures of explicit vs. implicit evaluation often differ Example: the "education effect" (higher education => less prejudice) MA thesis Mikael Sømhovd: asked attitudes towards immigrants... - both explicitly (questionnaire) and implicitly (response times) - from construction workers and academics
Research plan Figure 2 from: Mikael Sømhovd (2009, MA thesis) Implicit attitude: education effect absent Workers Academics Response facilitation for "Pleasant or..." "Norwegian" "Immigrant"
Research plan Measurement, ongoing and future work Application to - health-related behavior (PhD project Hildegunn Nordtug) - consumer choice (PhD project Kjærsti Thorsteinsen) - intergroup attitudes (various BA projects) Focus on - incremental prediction of behavior (over and above questionnaire) - refinement of measurement instruments
Research plan Change, previous work Explicit and implicit cognition operate differently Example: First impressions (MA thesis Laila Martinussen) Step 1: Repeated learning of information, e.g. "Anne is hungry." "Hansen is rich." "If someone is hungry and rich, she is a career woman." [ among many others; all in random order ] Step 2: Intuitive ratings, e.g. "Is Anne Hansen a career woman?"
Research plan Simulation result Computer simulation of implicit cognition: More practice (in Step 1) => reversal (in Step 2)
Research plan Simulation resultLaboratory result Laboratory: Reversal observed
Research plan Change, ongoing and future work Currently using "laboratory stereotypes" - stereotype creation (semesteroppgave Leif-Ole Haagensen) - long-term stability of change (upcoming PhD project, N. N.) Focus on unattended information - subliminal stimulus presentation - effortless learning and processing
Research plan Interaction of explicit and implicit cognition, future wrk. Application to - work-like settings (VERDIKT proposal) Focus on - effectiveness (does subliminal presentation "work" in the context of a demanding foreground task?) - interference (does subliminal presentation "disturb" the foreground task?) - methods for non-psychologists (engineers) to measure both
Summary My research plan, review Measure the strength of associations (to predict behavior better) Change the strength of associations (to change behavior) Investigate interaction of explicit and implicit cognition