76 INTERVENTIONS Presentation for the Iowa Department of Education December 10 & 12, 2002 Linda Fielding The University of Iowa
77 Main Resources This Talk is Based Upon: Hiebert, E., & Taylor, B. (2000). Beginning reading instruction: Research on early interventions. In M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research: Vol. III (pp. 455-482). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. National Research Council (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press Pressley, M. (2002). Effective beginning reading instruction. Journal of Literacy Research, 34, pp. 165-188. (Similar version on nrconline.org as a white paper) Taylor, B., Pearson, P. D., Clark, K., & Walpole, S.(2000). Effective schools and accomplished teachers:Lessons about primary-grade reading instruction in low-income schools. Elementary School Journal, 10.
78 What is an Intervention? “additional, targeted and intensive instruction provided to students who are struggling with learning to read and write.” (The Secretary’s Reading Leadership Academy, based on National Research Council, 1998).
79 What is an intervention? A supplementary program to address an identified or anticipated reading problem. Includes remedial interventions for children already identified, and preventive interventions for those considered “at risk.” (Burns, Griffin & Snow, Eds., 1999).
80 What is an intervention? “Since these programs take a preventive rather than a remedial perspective, they have been called interventions.” (Hiebert & Taylor, 2000)
81 What is an intervention? “The major prevention strategy…is excellent instruction…The intervention considered…is therefore schooling itself.” (National Research Council, 1998).
82 What is an intervention? “Intervention studies have as their express purpose the evaluation of a program for improving instruction.” (Piggott & Barr, 2000, p. 101).
83 The Overriding Point Of This Presentation: Quality & Quantity, NOT Difference! Struggling readers need more, and are more dependent on the best possible forms of, instruction that: – aligns with core reading instruction – is intended to bring them up to average levels
84 Overview of Presentation Historical perspective Effective schoolwide organizational strategies for all Effective classroom-based instructional strategies for all
85 Overview Characteristics of effective classroom literacy instruction for ALL, by grade Characteristics of effective special interventions by grade Persistent concerns/questions
87 Historical Perspective Late 1800s: Something other than not learning to read is wrong with the child (Klenk & Kiby, 2000) 1920s+: Search for cause-- medical model (Klenk & Kibby, 2000)
88 Historical Perspective 1960’s+: Distinction between special and compensatory education (McGill-Franzen, 1987) 1970s+: Focus on intensive intervention; tendency to “wait” (Klenk & Kibby, 2000)
89 Historical Perspective 1980s+: Critiques of differential treatment (Allington, 1981) 1990s+: Downplay of special/compensatory distinction (McGill-Franzen, 1987)
90 Historical Perspective 1990s+: Focus on early intervention, prevention, acceleration (Clay, 1993; Hiebert & Taylor, 2000)
91 Differential Treatment In Ability Groups Struggling readers: – Read relatively harder text – Did more round-robin oral reading – Made more errors
92 Differential Ability Group Treatment – Were interrupted more frequently – Got less wait time – Got more phonics-level than meaning-level cues from teachers
93 Differential Ability Group Treatment Got more word-level than meaning-level focus Formed different concepts about reading Developed less independence & confidence (Allington, 1981; Johnston & Allington, 1991)
96 Effective Schoolwide Organizational Strategies Strong home-school connections Systematic (3+ times/year) informal classroom assessment, sharing of results, use of results to inform instruction
97 Effective Schoolwide Strategies Building-level communication Early reading interventions Ongoing professional dev’t. Building collaboration-- commitment of time, resources, personnel to reading instruction
98 Effective Schoolwide Strategies Initial instruction in first language where possible Sensitivity to language and dialect influences on pronunciation Cultural accommodations Taylor et al., National Research Council
101 Effective Classroom-Based Strategies Time in small ability-grouped compared to large group instruction (60 min./day v. 25 min./day) when: – groups are flexible – group movement & instruction is based on regular assessment – all groups work toward same goals
102 Effective Classroom-Based Strategies Time spent in independent reading when it is a schoolwide commitment and is monitored for engagement and text level
103 Effective Classroom-Based Strategies Scaffolding vs. telling or recitation Scaffolding word recognition strategies during reading vs. explicit phonics instruction only Reviewing sight words
104 Effective Classroom-Based Strategies Asking higher-level comprehension questions Having students write in response to reading National Research Council; Taylor et al.
105 What is Scaffolding? Giving the least support possible but the most support necessary to enable accomplishment of task Gradual withdrawl of support as the child gains control of what you’ve taught National Research Council, 1998
106 What Is the Goal of Scaffolding? Independent control by the child Generalization of the knowledge beyond the setting in which it was learned
107 How Do I Know When and How To Withdraw Support? Daily formative assessment through observation, anecdotal records, running records Look for small increments daily and gradual change over time National Research Council, 1998; Taylor et al.
108 Gradual Release of Responsibility Direct explanation: What? When? Why? Teacher mental modeling (thinking aloud) Guided practice with feedback
109 Gradual Release of Responsibility Independent practice with feedback Transfer to new contexts and knowledge domains Duffy & Roehler, 1989
110 What is NOT Scaffolding? Moving directly from modeling to independent practice Doing the task for the child!
112 CHARACTERISTICS CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM-BASED LITERACY INSTRUCTION FOR ALL, BY GRADE National Research Council, 1998; Taylor et al.
113 Classroom Goals in Kindergarten Positive perspectives and attitudes on which learning about and from print depend Familiarity with structural elements and organization of print
114 Familiarity with forms & format of books & other print Alphabet recognition & writing Basic phonological awareness in first language Kindergarten Print-Related Goals
115 Kindergarten Strategies To Accomplish These Purposes Oral language activities Reading aloud to children: varied genres & sources Children’s reading & book exploration Thematic,play-based instruction
116 Kindergarten Strategies Writing activities including invented spelling Environmental, wholistic approaches to development of letter knowledge
117 Kindergarten Strategies Age-appropriate, engaging phonological awareness instruction in first language Word-directed activities for acquisition of sight vocab. & alphabetic principle in first language
118 Classroom Goals in First Grade Continuation of kindergarten goals Independent reading of connected text
119 Effective First-Grade Strategies Explicit instruction & practice in phonological awareness in first language Familiarity with spelling/sound correspondences & common spelling conventions; use in word I.D. while reading
120 Effective First-Grade Strategies Sight recognition--frequent words Independent reading & reading aloud (self, partners, teacher): varied genres & sources Daily reading of independent- & instructional-level texts with appropriate support
121 Effective First-Grade Strategies Continual promotion of comprehension Explicit instruction in comprehension & monitoring strategies
122 Effective First-Grade Strategies Acceptance of invented spelling along with focused instruction in conventional spelling & expectation of conventional spelling of taught words and patterns
123 Classroom Goals Grades 2-3 Building capacity to critically comprehend more difficult & varied texts Automaticity of word-level skills
124 Effective Strategies Grades 2-3 Early in Grade 2, identify children who have lost ground over the summer and who didn’t meet Grade 1 goals. Provide concentrated relearning activites & catch-up instruction. (Stahl, Heubach & Cramond, 1997)
125 Effective Strategies Grades 2-3 Reading varied connected text at independent and instructional levels Using teacher-guided repeated reading to help all children read at least Grade 2-level texts effectively
126 Continued teacher reading aloud to build concepts, vocabulary & comprehension Direct teaching of vocabulary & strategies to determine word meaning in context Effective Strategies Grades 2-3
127 Effective Strategies Grades 2-3 Thematic instruction such as Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (Guthrie & colleagues) to develop concepts & vocabulary, narrative & expository text comprehension
128 Effective Strategies Grades 2-3 Explicit instruction in repertoires of comprehension and metacomprehension strategies--e.g., reciprocal teaching; transactional strategies instruction (Pressley, 2002)
130 CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE SPECIAL INTERVENTIONS BY GRADE Hiebert & Taylor, 2000
131 Characteristics of Special Kindergarten Interventions Intended to develop underlying concepts about literacy, not conventional literacy per se-- through book handling, shared reading, writing, games (including phonemic awareness)
132 Special Kindergarten Interventions Both whole-class and small group interventions were effective--none were individual
133 Characteristics of Special First Grade Interventions Goal is reading words in text quickly and fluently Comprehension is emphasized only indirectly Reading and rereading a variety of texts to develop fluency
134 Special First Grade Interventions Use of several, not just one, text over a week’s lessons Children are guided to self monitor Children are taught to integrate semantic, syntactic, visual & phonic info. to pronounce words
135 Special First Grade Interventions Teacher attention to choice of books--different book features across projects Integration of writing especially to develop phonemic awareness & phonics skill
136 Special First Grade Interventions Daily routine includes text reading, writing & spelling words & texts, word recognition activities Regular assessment to plan instruction
137 Special First Grade Interventions No definitive conclusions on size of instructional group, 1-7 Focused professional development is important
138 Characteristics of Special Second Grade Interventions Focus on development of automaticity in word recognition through extensive reading and a model of expert reading Comprehension is a priority
139 Special Second Grade Interventions Group size varied--1- restructuring whole class
140 Observations About Special K-2 Interventions They work for a group who typically doesn’t do well in status-quo instruction They help, but don’t insure success at tasks in middle grades--effects wane over time
141 Observations About K-2 Interventions Starting early is important Effective classroom instruction is a must About 10% won’t read well enough to participate in classroom activities in grades 2+
142 Observations About K-2 Interventions Opportunities for professional development are critical; length & intensity not clear
143 Persistent Concerns & Questions What are the most appropriate interventions when first- language literacy instruction is not possible?
144 Persistent Concerns & Questions How does culturally responsive teaching play out in the details of literacy instruction? Does the most effective intervention depend on school demographics?
145 Persistent Concerns & Questions The small amount of comprehension instruction in primary classrooms