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The Endocrine, Nervous, and Reproductive Systems AP Biology Review Holly Davis.

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Presentation on theme: "The Endocrine, Nervous, and Reproductive Systems AP Biology Review Holly Davis."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Endocrine, Nervous, and Reproductive Systems AP Biology Review Holly Davis

2 Endocrine Nervous Reproductive Endocrine Nervous Reproductive

3 Endocrine How many known hormones are there? How many known hormones are there?

4 Sorry that’s wrong!

5 Your Right! There are 50 known hormones affecting the human body. There are 50 known hormones affecting the human body. Hormones affect certain cells, called target cells. Each hormone has a specific shape recognized by the target cells. Hormones affect certain cells, called target cells. Each hormone has a specific shape recognized by the target cells.

6 Endocrine Two types of Peptide hormones are Two types of Peptide hormones are cAMP (cyclic AMP) and Inositol Triposphate cAMP (cyclic AMP) and Inositol Triposphate cAMP (cyclic AMP) and Inositol Triposphate cAMP (cyclic AMP) and Inositol Triposphate FSH and LH FSH and LH FSH and LH FSH and LH Prolactin and TSH Prolactin and TSH Prolactin and TSH Prolactin and TSH

7 Genius! The Pituitary is the master gland, influencing all other glands. FYI- The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is actually part of the brain. The Pituitary is the master gland, influencing all other glands. FYI- The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is actually part of the brain.

8 Endocrine What is the master gland in the body? What is the master gland in the body? Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary Pituitary Pituitary Thyroid Thyroid Thyroid

9 Amazing! Peptide hormones are unable to pass through cell membranes and must bind to receptor sites. Two types are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and Inositol Triphosphate. Peptide hormones are unable to pass through cell membranes and must bind to receptor sites. Two types are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and Inositol Triphosphate.

10 Endocrine Female hormone glands are _______ and male hormone glands are _______. Female hormone glands are _______ and male hormone glands are _______. Thyroid and testes Thyroid and testes Thyroid and testes Thyroid and testes Ovaries and testes Ovaries and testes Ovaries and testes Ovaries and testes Hypothalamus and thyroid Hypothalamus and thyroid Hypothalamus and thyroid Hypothalamus and thyroid

11 Great Job! The Ovaries are the female hormone gland, which produce estrogen and progesterone. The Ovaries are the female hormone gland, which produce estrogen and progesterone. The testes are the male hormone gland in which testosterone is produced. The testes are the male hormone gland in which testosterone is produced.

12 Endocrine Which of these are not a hormone found in the pituitary gland? Which of these are not a hormone found in the pituitary gland? Endorphins Endorphins Endorphins cAMP cAMP cAMP FSH FSH FSH

13 Correct! cAMP is not one of the many hormones made in the pituitary gland. It is actually a type of peptide hormones. Endorphins and FSH are both hormones from the pituitary gland. Endorphins and FSH are both hormones from the pituitary gland.

14 Nervous What are the 3 types of neurons? What are the 3 types of neurons? Sensory, motor, dendrite Sensory, motor, dendrite Sensory, motor, dendrite Sensory, motor, dendrite Motor, interneurons, resting Motor, interneurons, resting Motor, interneurons, resting Motor, interneurons, resting Interneurons,motor, sensory Interneurons,motor, sensory Interneurons,motor, sensory Interneurons,motor, sensory

15 Super! Sensory, interneurons, and motor are the 3 types of neurons. Sensory takes stimulus to CNS. Interneurons integrate sensory input and motor output. Motor muscles and other glands respond to stimulus. Sensory, interneurons, and motor are the 3 types of neurons. Sensory takes stimulus to CNS. Interneurons integrate sensory input and motor output. Motor muscles and other glands respond to stimulus.

16 Nervous Situation in which nerve is positively charged on outside and negatively charged on inside. Situation in which nerve is positively charged on outside and negatively charged on inside. Threshold Threshold Threshold Polarization Polarization Polarization Depolarization Depolarization Depolarization

17 Great Job! Polarization is a situation in which nerve is positively charged on outside and negatively charged on inside. Polarization is a situation in which nerve is positively charged on outside and negatively charged on inside. Threshold is lowest point of electrical activity that will initiate depolarization. Threshold is lowest point of electrical activity that will initiate depolarization. Depolarization is the opposite of polarization. Depolarization is the opposite of polarization.

18 Nervous What phylum has the simplest nervous system? What phylum has the simplest nervous system? Cnidarians Cnidarians Cnidarians Arthropods Arthropods Arthropods Platyhelminthes Platyhelminthes Platyhelminthes

19 Way to Go! Cnidarians have the simplest nervous system of all the phylum. They have a loosely organized net of nerves.

20 Nervous What does acetylcholine do? What does acetylcholine do? Stimulates muscle to contract Stimulates muscle to contract Stimulates muscle to contract Stimulates muscle to contract Relaxes muscles Relaxes muscles Relaxes muscles Relaxes muscles Restricts passage of most substances into brain Restricts passage of most substances into brain Restricts passage of most substances into brain Restricts passage of most substances into brain

21 Great job! Acetylcholine stimulates muscles to contract. Acetylcholine stimulates muscles to contract. Cholinesterase relaxes muscles. Cholinesterase relaxes muscles. Astrocytes, circle capillaries in brain, restricts passage of most substances into brain. Astrocytes, circle capillaries in brain, restricts passage of most substances into brain.

22 Nervous What makes up the central nervous system? What makes up the central nervous system? Afferent cells and efferent cells Afferent cells and efferent cells Afferent cells and efferent cells Afferent cells and efferent cells Efferent cells and spinal cord Efferent cells and spinal cord Efferent cells and spinal cord Efferent cells and spinal cord Spinal cord and brain Spinal cord and brain Spinal cord and brain Spinal cord and brain

23 Genius! The central nervous system forms bridge between sensory and motor functions. The central nervous system forms bridge between sensory and motor functions. It is made of the spinal cord and brain. It is made of the spinal cord and brain.

24 Reproductive What is budding? What is budding? Individual grows out from body of original Individual grows out from body of original Individual grows out from body of original Individual grows out from body of original Breaking of body into several pieces Breaking of body into several pieces Breaking of body into several pieces Breaking of body into several pieces Regrowth of body or body tissue Regrowth of body or body tissue Regrowth of body or body tissue Regrowth of body or body tissue

25 Correct! Budding is when an individual grows out from body of the original individual. Budding is when an individual grows out from body of the original individual. Breaking of the body into several pieces is fragmentation. Breaking of the body into several pieces is fragmentation. Regrowth of body or body tissue is regeneration. Regrowth of body or body tissue is regeneration.

26 Reproductive Egg development without being fertilized is? Egg development without being fertilized is? Hermaphrodite Hermaphrodite Hermaphrodite Parthenogenesis Parthenogenesis Parthenogenesis Viviparity Viviparity Viviparity

27 Your Right! Parthenogenesis egg development without being fertilized ex. daphnia, ants, bees, wasp Parthenogenesis egg development without being fertilized ex. daphnia, ants, bees, wasp Hermaphrodites have both male and female reproductive parts Hermaphrodites have both male and female reproductive parts Viviparity the young develop in the uterus Viviparity the young develop in the uterus

28 Reproductive Where is the site of the sperm development? Where is the site of the sperm development? Prostate gland Prostate gland Prostate gland Prostate gland Vas deferens Vas deferens Vas deferens Vas deferens testes testes testes

29 Way to go! Testes are the site of the sperm development. Testes are the site of the sperm development. Prostate gland increases ph of sperm, activates and protects sperm. Prostate gland increases ph of sperm, activates and protects sperm. Vas deferens tube for sperm transport. Vas deferens tube for sperm transport.

30 Reproductive What is the ovary? What is the ovary? Egg development site Egg development site Egg development site Egg development site Ring of firm tissue surrounding uterine opening Ring of firm tissue surrounding uterine opening Ring of firm tissue surrounding uterine opening Ring of firm tissue surrounding uterine opening Muscular tube used to receive penis and act as birth passage Muscular tube used to receive penis and act as birth passage Muscular tube used to receive penis and act as birth passage Muscular tube used to receive penis and act as birth passage

31 Super! The ovary is the site of egg development. The ovary is the site of egg development. The ring of firm tissue surrounding uterine opening is the cervix. The ring of firm tissue surrounding uterine opening is the cervix. The vagina is the muscular tube used to receive penis and act as birth passage. The vagina is the muscular tube used to receive penis and act as birth passage.

32 Reproductive Which of these is not a mammal? Which of these is not a mammal? Monotremes Monotremes Monotremes Oviparous Oviparous Oviparous Marsupials Marsupials Marsupials

33 Great job! Oviparous is to lay eggs, both internally and externally like birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Oviparous is to lay eggs, both internally and externally like birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Monotremes lay eggs but have fur and produce milk, platypus and echidna. Monotremes lay eggs but have fur and produce milk, platypus and echidna. marsupials have young in uterus but the young crawl into a pouch on the mother examples- kangaroo and opossum. marsupials have young in uterus but the young crawl into a pouch on the mother examples- kangaroo and opossum.

34 Credit Thanks to the following: Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft ClipArt Mrs. Young Mrs. Davidson dex.html


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