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5GHz, VLA image of Cyg A by R. Perley Cosmological growth of SMBH: the kinetic luminosity function of AGN IAU Symposium 238Prague22/08/2006 IAU Symposium.

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Presentation on theme: "5GHz, VLA image of Cyg A by R. Perley Cosmological growth of SMBH: the kinetic luminosity function of AGN IAU Symposium 238Prague22/08/2006 IAU Symposium."— Presentation transcript:

1 5GHz, VLA image of Cyg A by R. Perley Cosmological growth of SMBH: the kinetic luminosity function of AGN IAU Symposium 238Prague22/08/2006 IAU Symposium 238 – Prague 22/08/2006 Andrea Merloni Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics & Sebastian Heinz MIT

2 Observed correlations (M- , Magorrian): How do they evolve at high redshift? Constraints on structure formation Constraints on feedback models (“radio mode” vs. “quasar mode” in the cosmologists jargon) What is the Kinetic Luminosity function of AGN, and how does it evolve? Need to include knowledge of accretion physics Intro: Key questions

3 Observed correlations (M- , Magorrian): How do they evolve at high redshift? Constraints on structure formation Constraints on feedback models (“radio mode” vs. “quasar mode” in the cosmologists jargon) What is the Kinetic Luminosity function of AGN, and how does it evolve? Need to include knowledge of accretion physics Intro: Key questions

4 Observed correlations (M- , Magorrian): How do they evolve at high redshift? Constraints on structure formation Constraints on feedback models (“radio mode” vs. “quasar mode” in the cosmologists jargon) What is the Kinetic Luminosity function of AGN, and how does it evolve? Need to include knowledge of accretion physics Intro: Key questions

5 Low accretion rate systems: X-ray radio correlation in binaries (Gallo et al. 2003, Fender 2005)  jets/outflows dominate over radiation as power sinks. But is radiative efficiency low with respect to the accreted mass? Advection vs. Outflows What is the physics of Radio-Loud high accretion rate systems (QSOs)? What fraction of the power do the most powerful jets carry? How common are they (lifetime of the radio active phase)? Open questions in accretion theory

6 Low accretion rate systems: X-ray radio correlation in binaries (Gallo et al. 2003, Fender 2005)  jets/outflows dominate over radiation as power sinks. But is radiative efficiency low with respect to the accreted mass? Advection vs. Outflows What is the physics of Radio-Loud high accretion rate systems (QSOs)? What fraction of the power do the most powerful jets carry? How common are they (lifetime of the radio active phase)? Open questions in accretion theory

7 “Jet line” Belloni and Homan (2005) GX (2002/03 outburst) Compact radio jets Transients

8 Heinz and Sunyaev 2003; Merloni et al 2003; Heinz 2004 Compact, self-absorbed synchrotron emission from the jet core Assume jet power L Kin ~ Accretion rate Independent of geometry and jet acceleration mechanisms, it can be shown that L R ~M 17/12 mdot 17/12 for flat radio spectra The observed radio-X-ray correlation (L R ~L X 0.7 ) implies: X-ray emission is radiatively inefficient (L X ~Mdot 2 ) L Kin ~ L R 1.4 Scaling relations and the low/hard state

9 Heinz and Sunyaev 2003; Merloni et al 2003; Heinz 2004 Compact, self-absorbed synchrotron emission from the jet core Assume jet power L Kin ~ Accretion rate Independent of geometry and jet acceleration mechanisms, it can be shown that L R ~M 17/12 mdot 17/12 for flat radio spectra The observed radio-X-ray correlation (L R ~L X 0.7 ) implies: X-ray emission is radiatively inefficient (L X ~Mdot 2 ) L Kin ~ L R 1.4 Scaling relations and the low/hard state

10 No evidence for break in correlation down to about L Edd Gallo et al A0620 in quiescence: a unique tool

11 The radiative inefficiency of the source (from comparing outer accretion rate with luminosity) and the slope of L R -L X correlation imply (Merloni, Heinz and Di Matteo 2003) E jet,Q ~ 5  W ergs E outburst ~ 2-4  ergs Gallo et al. (2006); Heinz and Grimm (2005) A0620 in quiescence: does the jet take all?

12 (Blandford & Begelman 1999) Accretion diagram for LMXB

13 Verify the hypothesis that AGN at low luminosity release most of their power as Kinetic Energy and the Low-hard state scaling Need independent measures of L Kin and L R (and/or L X, M BH ) Dynamical, from models of jet/lobe emission and evolution Cyg A, M87, Perseus A Indirect, from estimates of PdV work done on sourrounding gas (X-ray cavities) (Allen et al. 2006; Rafferty et al. 2006) What about radio galaxies and AGN?

14 Core Radio/X-ray correlation in AGN 5L X /L Edd L R /L Edd 1.4 Merloni et al. 2003; Maccarone et al Open triangles: BH binaires Closed squares: AGN

15 Verify the hypothesis that AGN at low luminosity release most of their power as Kinetic Energy and the Low-hard state scaling Need independent measures of L Kin and L R (and/or L X, M BH ) Dynamical, from models of jet/lobe emission and evolution Cyg A, M87, Perseus A Indirect, from estimates of PdV work done on sourrounding gas (X-ray cavities) (Allen et al. 2006; Rafferty et al. 2006) What about radio galaxies and AGN?

16 Merloni & Heinz, in prep. Core Radio/L Kin correlation in AGN Cyg A, Carilli & Barthel ‘97 Per A, Fabian et al M87, Bicknell & Begelman ‘96 Allen et al Rafferty et al L kin =6×10 37 (L R /10 30 ) 0.7

17 Derive the intrinsic, un-beamed core radio luminosity function of AGN from the observed flat spectrum radio sources LF (Dunlop & Peacock 1990). Assumes radio jets have all the same Gamma factor (or a distribution peaked around a single value) Use the L R /L Kin relation to estimate kinetic power in low state objects Assume that 10% of high state objects are radio loud with L kin ~L bol (Merloni 2004; Heinz, Schwab & Merloni 2006; Merloni et al. 2006) The Kinetic Luminosity Function of AGN

18 Merloni & Heinz, in prep.

19 Estimate accretion rate onto the black hole and kinetic energy output for any given L R -L X -M BH combination Solve continuity equations for BH growth (Small and Blandford 1992; Marconi et al. 2004) backwards in time, using the locally determined BH MF as a starting point (Merloni 2004; Heinz, Schwab & Merloni 2006; Merloni et al. 2006) Kinetic Luminosity Function of AGN: Evolution

20 Kinetic Energy output and SMBH growth Merloni & Heinz, in prep.

21 Kinetic Energy output and SMBH growth Merloni & Heinz, in prep.

22 Kinetic Energy output and SMBH growth Energy budget ~ % ~ 2-3 % ~ 9-16 % ~ 4-11 % Merloni & Heinz, in prep.

23 Constraints on the physics of accretion/jet production are crucial for our understanding of feedback “Low-luminosity AGN” are most likely dominated by kinetic energy as a sink of energy Physically motivated scaling L kin ~ L core,5GHz 0.7 The redshift evolution of SMBH mass, accretion rate and kinetic energy output function can be determined from the joint evolution of X-ray and Radio AGN luminosity functions using the mass-L X -L R relationship The K.E. feedback from LLAGN jets at late times starts dominating high mass objects first and then objects of progressively lower mass (downsizing of feedback) The occurrence of the so-called “radio mode” of AGN feedback is in fact only determined by accretion physics Conclusions

24 The M87 jet Hubble Heritage Project

25 Transient Black Hole Accretion Belloni and Homan (2005) GX (2002/03 outburst) “Jet line” giant radio flares Compact radio jets

26 A (V616 Mon) In 30 years, IR/Optical/UV campaign have revealed system parameters to a high level of accuracy: D = 1.2 ± 0.4 Kpc M = 11.0 ± 1.9 M ๏ 0.7 M ๏ K3-K4V companion in a 7.75 hr orbit Optical accretion disc spectra and total energy released in outburst have been used to estimate the outer disc accretion rate of ~1-3 × M ๏ /yr (about 5 orders of mag. larger than that onto BH if accretion efficient; McClintock et al. 1995; Meyer-Hofmeister & Meyer 1999 )

27 2005 campaign: X-ray radio observations Radio Flux density 51.1 μ Jy/beam (7.3 σ ) Lowest reported for an X-ray binary so far L R =7.5±3.7 × erg/s – 2-10 keV Luminosity (D=1.2 kpc) – L X = x erg/s

28 On the origin of radio emission Typical radio luminosities of early-to-mid type K stars is in the range 1 × up to 3 × erg/s/Hz (factor of 30 smaller than what observed in A ) Unlikely optically thin radio flare, seen at much larger (outburst) luminosity and/or larger scales Free-free emission unlikely, as would imply too large mass loss ADAF predictions fall short by more than 3 orders of magnitude Likely, continuous, persistent relativistic outflow with flat spectrum as seen in low/hard state sources

29 (Blandford & Begelman 1999) Accretion theory in a nutshell

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