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Tidal Dynamics of Transiting Exoplanets Dan Fabrycky UC Santa Cruz 13 Oct 2010 Photo: Stefen Seip, apod/ap040611 At: The Astrophysics of Planetary Systems: Formation, Structure, and Dynamical Evolution Tidal Dynamics of Transiting Exoplanets

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Why tides? Cumming+08 Hot Jupiters are a Sub-class

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Why transits? 1) m p, R p, (a p /R * ) 2) / Period (days) Mass [M J ] Dynamics not foreseen? { Spin-orbit migration (Queloz+2000) TTV/TDV (Miralda-Escude 2002) Tidal consumption (Sasselov 2003) Pont et al. 2010

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Historic perspective: disk migration is destructive (Goldreich & Tremaine 1980, Ward 1997) Stop it near the star? (Lin et al. 1996) That gives >10x too many hot Jupiters (Ida talk) Solution: Disk migration does not produce most hot Jupiters. Disk migration? Cumming+08

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Alternative: tidal dissipation Rasio & Ford 1996, Wu & Murray 2003, Matsumura, Peale, & Rasio 2010

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Kozai Movie

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But will tidal heating destroy the planet? Disruption possible (E t >E b ) for Maximum tidal input: Planet binding energy: work in progress with Doug Lin & Tsevi Mazeh

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Circularization with Overflow… In Words Dynamics slowly lowers the periapse Circularization takes hundreds of orbits The planet inflates slowly to the Roche Lobe It overflows gently through L 1 while circularizing Transfer of angular momentum raises periapse

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In equations Energy conservation A.M. conservation Roche-Lobe filling

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In a picture

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Circularization with Overflow Allows the survival of tidally migrating/inflating planets May explain M p -P correlation (Mazeh et al. 2005 relation): Lower mass planets less binding energy overflow more back away from the star further This model is doomed to succeed.

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Inclination expectations remain aligned get misaligned Inclination to stellar equator?

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Disk migration Kozai cycles with tidal friction Planet-planet scattering with tidal friction Fabrycky & Tremaine 07 Wu+07 Nagasawa+08 e.g., Cresswell+07 Also, resonant-pumping (Yu & Tremaine 01, Thommes & Lissauer 03) Inclination expectations

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Comparison to Observations Kozai Planet-Planet Scattering observations (Triaud+10)

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New Correlations Host’s convective zone mass Tidal torque Winn, Fabrycky, Albrecht, Johnson 2010 (see also Schlaufman 2010)

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Clear and Present Danger: Planetary Consumption Tidal calculations assuming only the convective envelope feels torque from the planet. The planet can realign the star’s observable photosphere. The photosphere is not spun-up, due to magnetic braking. The planet is doomed.

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Let’s look to Astrophysics

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Radiative-Convective Decoupling Decoupling was predicted theoretically (Pinsonneault+1987) Observed stellar rotation periods as a function of age suggest decoupling (e.g., Irwin & Bouvier 2009) BUT: Coupling apparently observed in the Sun Howe 2009, from helioseismology [10 -4 rad/s] r/R star

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Conclusions Fundamental indicators of hot Jupiter formation: –The pile-up and the mass-period relation within it –Spin-orbit alignment statistics and correlations Circularization from high eccentricity is likely the dominant channel. Tides in the star might damp obliquities, but it is time to entertain a variety of ideas.

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Theory of Secular Resonance frequency g frequency

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i HD 80606: Secular Resonance during Kozai cycles with tidal friction

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