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Amnesia Loss of memory ability - usually due to lesion or surgical removal of various parts of the brain.

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Presentation on theme: "Amnesia Loss of memory ability - usually due to lesion or surgical removal of various parts of the brain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Amnesia Loss of memory ability - usually due to lesion or surgical removal of various parts of the brain

2 Causes of Amnesia Concussion Migraines Hypoglycemia Epilepsy Electroconvulsive shock therapy Specific brain lesions (i.e. surgical removal) Ischemic events Drugs (esp. anesthetics) Infection Psychological Nutritional deficiency Lack of Sleep!

3 Amnesia Loss of memory ability - usually due to lesion or surgical removal of various parts of the brain Two broad categories: –Retrograde: loss of memories for events prior to damage

4 Amnesia Loss of memory ability - usually due to lesion or surgical removal of various parts of the brain Two broad categories: –Retrograde: loss of memories for events prior to damage –Anterograde: loss of ability to store new memories of events after damage

5 Retrograde Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia

6 Short-term and sensory memory are typically functional

7 Korsakoff’s Syndrome The Lost Mariner - What happened to Jimmie? What was his life like?

8 Korsakoff’s Syndrome (The Lost Mariner) Lesions to Medial Thalamus –Results from chronic alcoholism and consequent thiamine deficiency

9 Korsakoff’s Syndrome (The Lost Mariner) Lesions to Medial Thalamus –Results from chronic alcoholism and consequent thiamine deficiency –Severe anterograde amnesia

10 Korsakoff’s Syndrome (The Lost Mariner) Lesions to Medial Thalamus –Results from chronic alcoholism and consequent thiamine deficiency –Severe anterograde amnesia –Severe retrograde amnesia extending years before damage

11 Korsakoff’s Syndrome (The Lost Mariner) Lesions to Medial Thalamus –Results from chronic alcoholism and consequent thiamine deficiency –Severe anterograde amnesia –Severe retrograde amnesia extending years before damage –Confabulation - make up stories to explain absence of memory

12 Korsakoff’s Syndrome (The Lost Mariner) Lesions to Medial Thalamus –Results from chronic alcoholism and consequent thiamine deficiency –Severe anterograde amnesia –Severe retrograde amnesia extending years before damage –Confabulation - make up stories to explain absence of memory –Often unaware of their deficit

13 H. M Henry Gustav Molaison Patient H. M. - suffered from extreme epilepsy

14 H. M. Patient H. M. - bilateral resection of medial temporal lobes (containing hippocampus) –William Beecher Scoville and Brenda Milner - late 1950’s

15 H. M. Patient H. M. - bilateral resection of medial temporal lobes (containing hippocampus) –William Beecher Scoville and Brenda Milner - late 1950’s –Severe anterograde amnesia

16 H. M. Patient H. M. - bilateral resection of medial temporal lobes (containing hippocampus) –William Beecher Scoville and Brenda Milner - late 1950’s –Severe anterograde amnesia –Retrograde amnesia for years before surgery

17 H. M.

18 Some aspects of memory were spared (at least to some extent)

19 H. M. Some aspects of memory were spared (at least to some extent) –Procedural memory was largely unaffected - amnesia was largely restricted to episodic memory

20 Mirror Writing

21 H. M. Some aspects of memory were spared (at least to some extent) –Procedural memory was largely unaffected - amnesia was largely restricted to episodic memory –Some implicit awareness of recent events

22 H. M. Some aspects of memory were spared (at least to some extent) –Procedural memory was largely unaffected - amnesia was largely restricted to episodic memory –Some implicit awareness of recent events –Normal digit span (short-term memory) !

23 Decline in temporal lobe size with age Everyone experiences memory loss with aging

24 What can you do? –Minimize stress –Proper nutrition (eat your veggies) –Healthy lifestyle (exercise and sleep) –Keep using your brain –Protect your brain from injury

25 Hypermnesia - S. “Photographic” extreme memory ability (a mnemonist)

26 Hypermnesia - S. “Photographic” extreme memory ability (a mnemonist) Able to recall complex test stimuli

27 Hypermnesia - S. S. used two “strategies” or abilities typical of mnemonists: –Rich synesthesia-like quality to his perception of stimuli - leads to stronger associative links

28 Hypermnesia - S. S. used two “strategies” or abilities typical of mnemonists: –Rich synesthesia-like quality to his perception of stimuli - leads to stronger associative links –Vivid and elaborate mental imagery of things he should remember

29 Hypermnesia - S. “ Even numbers remind me of images. Take the number 1. This is a proud, well-built man; 2 is a high-spirited woman; 3 a gloomy person (shy, I don’t Know); 6 a man with a swollen foot...” Luria, A.R. The mind of a mnemonist Luria, A.R. The man with a shattered world. 1972

30 What do you think the brain of someone that has this “super memory” would look like? Long-term Memory

31 What if I told you it looked like this? Long-term Memory Kim Peek

32 Long-term Memory Kim Peek was the inspiration for the character Raymond Babbit in Rain Man The real Kim Peek probably wasn’t autistic but he did have severe developemental and social deficits

33 Long-term Memory The moral of the story of Kim Peek is that there is still much to learn regarding the psychology and neuroscience of long-term memory

34 Next Time Awareness and Your Brain


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