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Myers Psychology Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior
Kinds of Neurons 2 Sensory Neurons carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS. Motor Neurons carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands. Interneuron connects the two neurons.
Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine (ACh): arousal, attention, memory, and motivation Dopamine: motor disorders, such as Parkinson's disease Serotonin: emotions, arousal, and sleep Norepinephrine: wakefulness and arousal, as well as learning, memory, and emotional mood Endorphins: Reduce pain by inhibiting the neurons that transmit pain messages to the brain
Reuptake Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons “applies the breaks” on neurotransmitter action. 7
Agonist or Antagonist REMEMBER agonist is an agent mimics the neurotransmitter antagonists are against blocks the neurotransmitter Botulism- This toxin prevents the release of Ach Heroine or Morphie Thorazine- Prevents dopamine from binding to receptor sites Curare- Blocks ACH (so, what happens?)
Neuron Terms Resting potential: sitting and waiting…. Polarization: inside of neuron is negatively charged relative to the outside Neural impulse (action potential): firing of a nerve cell Threshold: level an impulse must exceed to cause firing All-or-None Law –no “in-between” Direction of impulse- only one Absolute- RESTING POTENTIAL-period when a neuron cannot fire again regardless of the strength of incoming message (typically 1 ms)
Nervous System 11 Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Basic Tasks Sensory Input: Monitoring of external and internal environments. Integration: brain processes info- memory. Motor output: If necessary, signal effected organs to respond
Somatic vs. Autonomic Voluntary Skeletal muscle Axon terminals release acetylcholine Always excitatory Controlled by the cerebrum Involuntary Axon terminals release acetylcholine or norepinephrine Can be excitatory or inhibitory Controlled by the homeostatic centers in the brain – pons, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata
Autonomic Nervous System 2 divisions: Sympathetic “Fight or flight” “E” division Exercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassment Parasympathetic “Rest and digest” “D” division Digestion, defecation, and diuresis
Nervous vs. Endocrine System Similarities: monitor stimuli and react to maintain homeostasis. Differences: The NS is a rapid, fast-acting system usually short lasting The ES acts slower (via blood-borne chemical signals called Hormones) lasts longer.
Hormones 16 Hormones chemicals synthesized by the endocrine glands and secreted in the bloodstream. Growth, reproduction, metabolism and mood Keeps everything in balance when responding to stress, exertion, and internal thoughts.
Pituitary Gland AKA- Master Gland The anterior lobe = hormones that regulate other glands AND growth hormone The posterior lobe regulates water and salt balance AND secretes Thyrotropin for thyroid action Pineal Gland= Melatonin- sleep and wake cycles related to light and dark
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Thyroid – Thyroxin & Calcitonin increase metabolic rate and heart beat Parathyroid – parathyroid hormone= increases calcium in the blood
Adrenal Glands Part of the Nervous System- function like hormones! Adrenal gland- stress hormone: cortisol Medulla (interior lobe) adrenaline AKA epinephrine and noradrenalin AKA norepinephrine (Remember- this is an international test, so you shouldn’t see adrenaline!)
Gonads Sex glands are located in different places in men and women. Regulate bodily development and maintain reproductive organs in adults.
Did you know? The human brain only weighs 3lbs. It consumes up to 20% of your body energy The brain makes up less than 2.5% of your total body weight of your total body weight The main sources of energy for your brain comes from your brain comes from glucose and oxygen. glucose and oxygen.
Techniques to Study the Brain 23 Lesion experimentally destroys brain tissue to study behaviors after such destruction. Lobotomy ECT Hubel (1990) Clinical observations – Generally postmortum Studies of alterations in brain morphology (changes through time) due to neurological and psychiatric disease.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) 24 EEG- An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. PET (positron emission tomography) Scan is a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose (dye) while the brain performs a given task. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer- generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue.. FMRI (functional MRI)- looks at the mind in action
The Three Layers of the Brain Brain Stem and Cerebellum: Drives vital functions - heart rate, breathing, digestion and motor coordination. (AKA reptilian brain, old brain) Limbic System: Involved in emotion and memory. Cerebrum: Enables reasoning, planning, creating and problem solving.
Brain Stem RETICULAR FORMATION: neurons that extend from the spinal cord to the Thalamus: Medulla: Controls breathing and heart rate. Pons: Regulates brain activity during sleep and dreaming.- connects upper and lower brain Midbrain: Regulates basic movement patterns - eating, drinking- Relay station for audio and visual stimulation Thalamus: “Relay Station” of the brain.- for senses- except smell- switchboard for the brain.
The Cerebellum Two “egg-shaped” pieces attached to the rear of the brain stem. Coordinates many functions: Movement and balance Helps process sensory information Nonverbal learning, and memory
The Limbic System Primarily linked to memory, emotions, and drives. Hippocampus: Involved in establishing and processing long-term memories. Amygdala: in memory and emotion, (aggression & fear) Hypothalamus: Monitors blood to determine condition of body, pleasure rewards **** Stimulating the lateral hypothalamus causes a desire to eat, while stimulating the ventromedial hypothalamus causes a desire to stop eating The hormones of the hypothalamus influence the pituitary gland- thus a major link between the nervous and endocrine systems
The Cerebrum Cerebral Cortex: Thin gray-matter covering ofthe cerebrum. Carries on the major portion of our “higher” thinking and perceiving. It is the body’s ultimate control and information processing center.
Functions of the Cortex The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements. The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs. 30
Association Areas 31 More intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex.
The Frontal Lobe *allows you to move parts of your body at will * is the largest part of the cortex *it also allows you to think about the past and plan for the future *it allows you to focus your attention, reflect, make decisions, solve problems, and engage in conversation
The Occipital Lobes *are located at the back of the brain This is where your vision is processed Through research scientists have discovered that there are: motion sensitive cells color sensitive cells strait line cells
The Temporal Lobe This part of the brain is concerned with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli (hearing) and memory (hippocampus ). Language can be effected by temporal lobe damage. Left temporal damages disturb recognition of words. Right temporal damage can cause a loss or inability to talk.
Language and the Brain Aphasia—partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand language because of brain injury or damage Broca’s area—plays role in speech production Wernike’s area—plays role in understanding and meaningful speech
Brain has 2 Hemispheres Left & Right sides are separate Corpus Callosum : major pathway between hemispheres When “cut” sensory and motor output are still crossed Hemispheres can’t share data Some functions are ‘lateralized’ *not 100%) language on left math, music on right Left Hemisphere Corpus Callosum Right Hemisphere
Split brain operation—procedure used to reduces recurrent seizures of severe epilepsy Corpus callosum—thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres A Hammer is Flashed in the LEFT visual field of a split brain patient. When asked, “What did you see?” What will they say?
2 Types of Plasticity (Ability for the brain tissue to repair itself or adopt functions) 1. Structural Plasticity – Actual changing of the neuron or actually growing new neurons (Neurogenesis) only occurs in the hippocampus 1. Functional Plasticity – When an area of the brain takes up a new function to replace a damaged area of the brain.