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Neuroscience and Behavior

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1 Neuroscience and Behavior
Myers Psychology Chapter 2 Why are psychologists concerned with human biology? Everything psychological is simultaneously biological. We think, feel and act with our bodies. We are gaining understanding of sleep, dreams, depression, schizophrenia, hunger, etc.

2 Kinds of Neurons Sensory Neurons carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS. Motor Neurons carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands. Interneuron connects the two neurons.


4 Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine (ACh): arousal, attention, memory, and motivation Dopamine: motor disorders, such as Parkinson's disease Serotonin: emotions, arousal, and sleep Norepinephrine: wakefulness and arousal, as well as learning, memory, and emotional mood Endorphins: Reduce pain by inhibiting the neurons that transmit pain messages to the brain ACh is found at every junction between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle- it causes muscles to contract. Endorphins (natural opiates) are released in response to pain and vigorous exercises- runners high and indifference to pain in some seriously injured people

5 Remember, the dendrite fibers receive information from sensory receptors or other neurons and the axon fibers pass that information along to other neurons- the Myelin sheath insulates the axons and helps speed up their impulses.

6 Pressure, heat, light or chemical messages can trigger an impulse (excitatory signal – inhibitory signal exceeds the threshold) The action potential is the impulse- the electrical charge that travels down the axon. Nerve cells communicate by using chemical messangers called neurotransmitters as they travel across the synapse.

7 Reuptake Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons “applies the breaks” on neurotransmitter action.

8 Agonist or Antagonist REMEMBER agonist is an agent mimics the neurotransmitter antagonists are against blocks the neurotransmitter Botulism- This toxin prevents the release of Ach Heroine or Morphie Thorazine- Prevents dopamine from binding to receptor sites Curare- Blocks ACH (so, what happens?) Botulism can cause paralysis or death. Thorazine is used to treat schizophrenia Curare- Poison darts Stuns or kills prey Blocks the Ach receptors Caffeine increases the release of excitatory neurotransmitters by blocking the transmitter (adenosine) that inhibits excitatory neurotransmitters, Prevents dopamine from being reabsorbed Leads to excess amounts of accumulated dopamine and Results in heightened arousal of the entire nervous system

9 Neuron Terms Resting potential: sitting and waiting….
Polarization: inside of neuron is negatively charged relative to the outside Neural impulse (action potential): firing of a nerve cell Threshold: level an impulse must exceed to cause firing All-or-None Law –no “in-between” Direction of impulse- only one Absolute- RESTING POTENTIAL- period when a neuron cannot fire again regardless of the strength of incoming message (typically 1 ms)

10 The Nervous System Telegraph Line video
Click on the Youtube link to see School House Rock’s Telegraph Line. Telegraph Line video

11 Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System
(PNS) The CNS= Simply the brain and spinal cord The pNS= links the CNS to the rest of the body

12 Basic Tasks Sensory Input: Monitoring of external and internal environments. Integration: brain processes info- memory. Motor output: If necessary, signal effected organs to respond

13 Somatic vs. Autonomic Voluntary Skeletal muscle
Axon terminals release acetylcholine Always excitatory Controlled by the cerebrum Involuntary Axon terminals release acetylcholine or norepinephrine Can be excitatory or inhibitory Controlled by the homeostatic centers in the brain – pons, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata

14 Autonomic Nervous System
2 divisions: Sympathetic “Fight or flight” “E” division Exercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassment Parasympathetic “Rest and digest” “D” division Digestion, defecation, and diuresis Sympathetic arouses your system- Parasympathetic calms your system

15 Nervous vs. Endocrine System
Similarities: monitor stimuli and react to maintain homeostasis. Differences: The NS is a rapid, fast-acting system usually short lasting The ES acts slower (via blood-borne chemical signals called Hormones) lasts longer.

16 Hormones Hormones chemicals synthesized by the endocrine glands and secreted in the bloodstream. Growth, reproduction, metabolism and mood Keeps everything in balance when responding to stress, exertion, and internal thoughts.

17 Pituitary Gland AKA- Master Gland
The anterior lobe = hormones that regulate other glands AND growth hormone The posterior lobe regulates water and salt balance AND secretes Thyrotropin for thyroid action Pineal Gland= Melatonin- sleep and wake cycles related to light and dark

18 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Thyroid – Thyroxin & Calcitonin increase metabolic rate and heart beat Parathyroid – parathyroid hormone= increases calcium in the blood

19 Adrenal Glands Part of the Nervous System- function like hormones!
Adrenal gland- stress hormone: cortisol Medulla (interior lobe) adrenaline AKA epinephrine and noradrenalin AKA norepinephrine (Remember- this is an international test, so you shouldn’t see adrenaline!)

20 Gonads Sex glands are located in different places in men and women.
Regulate bodily development and maintain reproductive organs in adults.

21 The Psychology of the Brain

22 Did you know? The human brain only weighs 3lbs.
It consumes up to 20% of your body energy The brain makes up less than 2.5% of your total body weight The main sources of energy for your brain comes from glucose and oxygen.

23 Techniques to Study the Brain
Lesion experimentally destroys brain tissue to study behaviors after such destruction. Lobotomy ECT Hubel (1990) Clinical observations – Generally postmortum Studies of alterations in brain morphology (changes through time) due to neurological and psychiatric disease. Link is to a 7 minute video clip showing aggressive behaviors in animals and a human case of changing behaviors through a brain lesion.

24 Electroencephalogram (EEG)
EEG- An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. PET (positron emission tomography) Scan is a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose (dye) while the brain performs a given task. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer- generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue.. FMRI (functional MRI)- looks at the mind in action

25 The Three Layers of the Brain
Brain Stem and Cerebellum: Drives vital functions - heart rate, breathing, digestion and motor coordination. (AKA reptilian brain, old brain) Limbic System: Involved in emotion and memory. Cerebrum: Enables reasoning, planning, creating and problem solving.

26 Brain Stem Thalamus: “Relay Station” of the brain.-for senses- except smell- switchboard for the brain. Midbrain: Regulates basic movement patterns - eating, drinking- Relay station for audio and visual stimulation Pons: Regulates brain activity during sleep and dreaming.- connects upper and lower brain Medulla: Controls breathing and heart rate. RETICULAR FORMATION: neurons that extend from the spinal cord to the Thalamus:

27 The Cerebellum Two “egg-shaped” pieces attached to the rear of the brain stem. Coordinates many functions: Movement and balance Helps process sensory information Nonverbal learning, and memory New Research (Bower and Parsons) indicates that it also helps us judge time, modulate emotions, and discriminate sounds and textures.

28 Primarily linked to memory, emotions, and drives.
The Limbic System Primarily linked to memory, emotions, and drives. Hippocampus: Involved in establishing and processing long-term memories. Amygdala: in memory and emotion, (aggression & fear) Hypothalamus: Monitors blood to determine condition of body, pleasure rewards **** Stimulating the lateral hypothalamus causes a desire to eat, while stimulating the ventromedial hypothalamus causes a desire to stop eating The hormones of the hypothalamus influence the pituitary gland- thus a major link between the nervous and endocrine systems

29 The Cerebrum Cerebral Cortex: Thin gray-matter covering ofthe cerebrum. Carries on the major portion of our “higher” thinking and perceiving. It is the body’s ultimate control and information processing center.

30 Functions of the Cortex
The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements. The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs. OBJECTIVE 16| Summarize some of the findings on the functions of the motor cortex and the sensory cortex, and discuss the importance of the association areas.

31 Association Areas More intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex.

32 The Frontal Lobe * is the largest part of the cortex
*allows you to move parts of your body at will *it also allows you to think about the past and plan for the future *it allows you to focus your attention, reflect, make decisions, solve problems, and engage in conversation

33 motion sensitive cells
The Occipital Lobes This is where your vision is processed *are located at the back of the brain Through research scientists have discovered that there are: motion sensitive cells color sensitive cells strait line cells

34 The Temporal Lobe This part of the brain is concerned with
perception and recognition of auditory stimuli (hearing) and memory (hippocampus). Language can be effected by temporal lobe damage. Left temporal damages disturb recognition of words. Right temporal damage can cause a loss or inability to talk.

35 Language and the Brain Aphasia—partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand language because of brain injury or damage Broca’s area—plays role in speech production Wernike’s area—plays role in understanding and meaningful speech

36 Brain has 2 Hemispheres Left & Right sides are separate
Corpus Callosum : major pathway between hemispheres When “cut” sensory and motor output are still crossed Hemispheres can’t share data Some functions are ‘lateralized’ *not 100%) language on left math, music on right Left Hemisphere Corpus Callosum Right key words: left hemisphere; right hemisphere

37 Split brain operation—procedure used to reduces recurrent seizures of severe epilepsy
Corpus callosum—thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres A Hammer is Flashed in the LEFT visual field of a split brain patient. When asked, “What did you see?” What will they say?

38 2 Types of Plasticity (Ability for the brain tissue to repair itself or adopt functions)
Structural Plasticity – Actual changing of the neuron or actually growing new neurons (Neurogenesis) only occurs in the hippocampus Functional Plasticity – When an area of the brain takes up a new function to replace a damaged area of the brain.

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