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Do Now: Is the dancer turning clockwise or counter clockwise?

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Presentation on theme: "Do Now: Is the dancer turning clockwise or counter clockwise?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Do Now: Is the dancer turning clockwise or counter clockwise?

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4 What your brain just did…

5 What is the structure of the brain? Brain Over 100 Billion Cells Each part works with others to control what think feel and do. Comprised of three major parts Lower Brain Mid Brain Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex (upper brain)

6 What does the brain look like?

7 Corpus Callosum Broad, thick band running from side to side and consisting of millions and millions of nerve fibers. Connections between left and right sides of brain. Highway of information – it is the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge of the I-84 of your brain!

8 Brain Stem Mid Brain Lower Brain Upper Brain

9 What is the Upper Brain? Cerebral Cortex: outermost layer of brain covers the cerebrum – gray matter. Higher level thought 100 Billion nerve cells It is the most highly developed part of the human brain and is responsible for thinking, perceiving, producing and understanding language. It is also the most recent structure in the history of brain evolution

10 Why is the cerebral cortex so important? Personality: makes us “human” “Seat of the soul” Example: when faced with severe brain injury to frontal lobe– personality sometimes changes completely Strokes, tumors – sometimes causes this Personality: makes us “human” “Seat of the soul” Example: when faced with severe brain injury to frontal lobe– personality sometimes changes completely Strokes, tumors – sometimes causes this

11 What does the mid brain do? Possible connection?

12 What does the lower brain do?

13 Hemispheres

14 Right Brain or Left Brain?

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16 You have inherited 1,000,000 dollars! Congratulations! You are moving to new house you are having made and have to pack your things in boxes. 1. How will you pack your priceless glassware that Aunt Edna left you in her will to make sure they don’t break? If any of them break, the money has to be given to a distant cousin. Describe in a few sentences how you will pack the glasses?

17 Where does the brain sit?

18 How is the brain protected? Protected by the thick bones of the skull Cerebral Cortex covering Suspended in cerebrospinal fluid cerebrospinal fluid Isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier a semi-permeable membrane that protects the brain. blood-brain barrier Protected by the thick bones of the skull Cerebral Cortex covering Suspended in cerebrospinal fluid cerebrospinal fluid Isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier a semi-permeable membrane that protects the brain. blood-brain barrier The delicate nature of the human brain makes it susceptible to many types of damage and disease. Infection of the brain is rare because of the barriers that protect it, but is very serious when it occurs. Multiple Sclerosis-mylen, insulation for nerves, is impaired. Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Chorea = CNS diseases The delicate nature of the human brain makes it susceptible to many types of damage and disease. Infection of the brain is rare because of the barriers that protect it, but is very serious when it occurs. Multiple Sclerosis-mylen, insulation for nerves, is impaired. Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Chorea = CNS diseases

19 Phineas Gage: Neuroscience’s Most Famous Patient

20 Summary There are three parts to the brain on a horizontal level Upper Brain: higher level thinking Mid Brain: (Limbic System)vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation Lower Brain: primitive functions, aggression, fight or flight Brain Stem: autonomic functions Two hemispheres – right hemisphere controls left, left hemisphere controls right Brain Dominance Theory: Right brain dominant – art, language, creative. Left brain – logical, math, organized

21 What is a stroke? A stroke is a medical emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. "Mini-strokes" or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), occur when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted.transient ischemic attacks Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg (especially on one side of the body) Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination Sudden severe headache with no known cause If you have any of these symptoms, you must get to a hospital quickly to begin treatment. Acute stroke therapies try to stop a stroke while it is happening by quickly dissolving the blood clot or by stopping the bleeding. Post-stroke rehabilitation helps individuals overcome disabilities that result from stroke damage. Drug therapy with blood thinners is the most common treatment for stroke. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

22 Do Now: Make a happy face Make an angry face Make a sad face Make a fearful face How do you know how to do that? Make a happy face Make an angry face Make a sad face Make a fearful face How do you know how to do that? Face Blindness Test

23 Fissure: groove along middle of brain Frontal Lobe::reasoning, personality, Thought, complex thoughts Parietal Lobe: sensory strip Motor Strip: along frontal lobe - movement Occipital Lobe: interprets visual information Temporal Lobe: speech, hearing Prefrontal Lobe: :personal memories Cerebellum: balance, coordination Reticular Activating System: alertness Cerebral cortex: covers brain (gray matter)

24 Fissure: groove along middle of brain Frontal Lobe::reasoning, personality, Thought, complex thoughts Parietal Lobe: sensory strip Motor Strip: along frontal lobe - movement Occipital Lobe: interprets visual information Temporal Lobe: speech, hearing Prefrontal Lobe: :personal memories Cerebellum: balance, coordination Reticular Activating System: alertness Cerebral cortex: covers brain (gray matter)

25 Do Now: This is a G rated activity– touch the area where your corpus callosum (under the fissure) is Now touch your frontal lobe. Now your Parietal lobe Now your Temporal lobe Now your Occipital lobe Now your Cerebellum Now your Medulla Oblongata

26 Reading: Disorders of the Brain Attention Deficit Disorder TBI: Traumatic Brain Injury Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia with Lewey Bodies: Although, where Alzheimer’s disease usually begins quite gradually, DLB often has a rapid or acute onset, with especially rapid decline in the first few months. While the specific symptoms in a person with DLB will vary, core features of DLB are: 1) fluctuating cognition with great variations in attention and alertness from day to day and hour to hour 2) recurrent visual hallucinations. 3.)REM Behavior Disorder

27 Do Now: Draw a Clock

28 Mini-cog During the mini-cog, a person is asked to complete two tasks: 1.Remember and a few minutes later repeat the names of three common objects 2.Draw a face of a clock showing all 12 numbers in the right places and a time specified by the examiner 3.The results of this brief test can help a physician determine if further evaluation is needed.

29 Mini-mental state exam (MMSE) During the MMSE, a health professional asks a patient a series of questions designed to test a range of everyday mental skills. Examples of questions include: 1.Remember and repeat a few minutes later the names of three common objects (for instance, horse, flower, penny) 2.State the year, season, day of the week and date 3.Count backward from 100 by 7s or spell "world" backwards 4.Name two familiar objects in the office as the examiner points to them 5.Identify the location of the examiner's office (state, city, street address, floor) 6.Repeat a common phrase or saying after the examiner 7.Copy a picture of two interlocking shapes 8.Follow a three-part instruction, such as: take a piece of paper in your right hand, fold it in half, and place it on the floor

30 Researchers found that healthy test subjects were able to list 20 to 25 words in each test, but patients with Alzheimer's could remember only 10 to 15 words. The Alzheimer's patients were unable to remember words learned later in life but could remember words learned in early childhood. This pattern was so consistent that researchers were able to determine which subjects had Alzheimer's based on this word loss.

31 What are some other parts of their brain and their purpose? Brain stem: internal physical state of body Medulla Oblongata: breathing, heartbeat Pons: regulates brain during sleep Thalamus: relay station between senses and cerebral cortex Cerebellum: balance and movement Limbic system: emotions, memory Hippocampus: long term memory Amygdala: aggression, emotion, motives, (very active during adolescence) Hypothalamus: eating, drinking, body temperature

32 Exit Quiz

33 What is the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge of the Interstate 84 of your brain called? What does it mean if a neurologist asks you to “Draw a Clock”? What rare and controversial procedure is sometimes done to patients with severe seizure disorders?

34 List as many fruits as you can! Get ready, get set GO! Subjects were asked to list as many types of fruit they could think of in a second timed test. In 2005, a study was reported in "Neuropsychologia" in which researchers tested 96 people diagnosed with Alzheimer's and compared the results to 40 healthy people.

35 Split Brain Game

36 What are Neurons? Myelinated neurons are found in the peripheral nerves (sensory and motor neurons), while non-myelinated neurons are found in the brain and spinal cord.

37 This neuron travels from your brain to your body? This neuron travels from your body to your brain? These neurons help neurons connect to each other to get to their source? What is the insulation covering your peripheral nerves called? What disease is caused by an autoimmune reaction which causes a deterioration of this insulation?

38 Sensory Neurons: Travel from body to brain Motor Neurons: Travel from brain to body Interneurons: Connect sensory and motor neurons Receptors; Put information into electrical/chemical messages to be transmitted by sensory neurons

39 Motor Neuron Sensory Neuron Inter Neuron Receptors I travel from brain to body I travel from body to brain I connect sensory and motor neurons We put information into electrochemical messages transmitted by sensory neurons What he said…. Receptors The Role of Neurons in your Brain

40 Synapses, neurotransmitters, neurons…oh my!

41 The Amazing Synapse! Neurons have specialized projections called dendrites and axons. A synapse is a structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell (neural or otherwise).

42 Dopamine Motor Functions Too much – Schizophrenia (theory) Too little – Parkinson's and other movement diseases Motor Functions Too much – Schizophrenia (theory) Too little – Parkinson's and other movement diseases Acetylcholine Attention and R.E.M. Sleep Inducer (RAS) Too little: Myasthenia Gravis (muscle weakness) Alzheimer’s Link Attention and R.E.M. Sleep Inducer (RAS) Too little: Myasthenia Gravis (muscle weakness) Alzheimer’s Link Endorphin Relieve pain, increase wellbeing Natural form of morphine (woo hoo!) Relieve pain, increase wellbeing Natural form of morphine (woo hoo!) Serotonin chemical that helps maintain a "happy feeling," helps with sleep, anxiety, depression GABA gamma-aminobutyric acid amino acid that helps induce relaxation and sleep builds muscle tone. It balances the brain by inhibiting over- excitation amino acid that helps induce relaxation and sleep builds muscle tone. It balances the brain by inhibiting over- excitation What are Neurotransmitters made up of?

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44 Reticular Activating System Keeps us alert or puts us to sleep – alcohol mimics reticular system neurons The reason that most drunk driving accidents are due to drivers falling asleep at the wheel

45 Reuptake The main objective of a Reuptake Inhibitor is to substantially decrease the rate by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed, leaving a large gain in the concentration of neurotransmitter in the synapse. Example: Antidepressant drugs often use ssri’s (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) to cause a GAIN in amount of serotonin in brain.

46 Serotonin Overdose ClassDrugs Antidepressants Monoamine oxidase inhibitorsMonoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), [1] TCAs, [1] SSRIs, [1] SNRIs, [1] bupropion, [6] nefazodone, [7] trazodone [7] [1]TCAs [1]SSRIs [1]SNRIs [1] bupropion [6]nefazodone [7]trazodone [7] Opioids tramadoltramadol, [1] pethidine, [1] fentanyl, [1] pentazoci ne, [1] buprenorphine [8] oxycodone, [9] hydrocod one [9] [1]pethidine [1]fentanyl [1]pentazoci ne [1]buprenorphine [8] oxycodone [9]hydrocod one [9] CNS stimulantsstimulants phenterminephentermine, [10] diethylpropion, [10] amphetam ine, [3][10] sibutramine, [1] methylphenidate, [10] m ethamphetamine, [10] cocaine [10] [10]diethylpropion [10]amphetam ine [3][10]sibutramine [1] methylphenidate [10]m ethamphetamine [10]cocaine [10] 5-HT 1 5-HT 1 agoniststriptans [1][10] PsychedelicsEcstasy Crystal Meth Meth ] LSD [11][12] ]LSD [11][12] Herbs St John's WortSt John's Wort, [1] Syrian rue, [1] Panax ginseng, [1] Nutmeg [13] [1]Syrian rue [1]Panax ginseng [1]Nutmeg [13] Others tryptophantryptophan, [1] L- Dopa, [14] valproate, [1] buspirone, [1] lithium, [1] li nezolid, [1][15] dextromethorphan, [1] 5- hydroxytryptophan, [7] chlorpheniramine, [10] ris peridone, [16] olanzapine, [17] ondansetron, [1] gra nisetron, [1] metoclopramide, [1] ritonavir [1] [1]L- Dopa [14]valproate [1]buspirone [1]lithium [1]li nezolid [1][15] dextromethorphan [1]5- hydroxytryptophan [7]chlorpheniramine [10]ris peridone [16] olanzapine [17]ondansetron [1]gra nisetron [1]metoclopramide [1]ritonavir [1]

47 What did we learn? Why do people have split brain surgery? What is Myelin: Where to Motor Neurons travel?: Where do Sensory Neurons Travel What do Interneurons do? What do Receptors do? receive neurotransmitters What are Neurotransmitters? electrical/chemical messages passed along by neurons What is Serotonin? What is Dopamine known for? What is Synesthesia? How did it effect Daniel Tammet?

48 Exit Quiz

49 “Born on a Blue Day” Take out your notebook and write down these questions: What is Daniel Tammet’s ability? What is synesthesia? What other neurological disorder does Daniel have and how does it limit his life? How does it enrich his life? Who did he meet….?

50 Exit Quiz

51 DO NOW: Reading: What are reflexes? 1.Read article 2.Answer questions for “reading” …you will answer the “listening” questions at the end of class and hand in.

52 Quick! Look closely into the eyes of your closest classmate (don’t worry…it’s not romantic)

53 Pupillary Response

54 What are reflexes? A reflex is an involuntary or automatic, action that your body does in response to something - without you even having to think about it. There are many types of reflexes and every healthy person has them. In fact, we're born with most of them…and most of them fade by age 6 months. Some infant reflexes that show up in adulthood can be signs of neurological disease.

55 Why do we have reflexes? Reflexes protect your body from things that can harm it. For example, if you put your hand on a hot stove, a reflex causes you to immediately remove your hand before a "Hey, this is hot!" message even gets to your brain Other examples of protective reflexes are blinking when something flies toward your eyes or raising your arm if a ball is thrown your way. Even coughing and sneezing are reflexes. They clear the airways of irritating things

56 What are the reasons for reflexes? Evolutionary Perspective? Survival Instinct? Reflexes take place without traveling from brain (motor neurons) to sensory neurons They use inter-neurons to communicate without direct motor neurons! How are reflexes different than reactions?

57 Common Reflexes Babinski (foot) Moro (startle Tonic (fencing) Rooting (sucking) Pupillary (eyes – constriction Or dilation) Galant (leaning against side of spine that is stroked)

58 Babinski Reflex Babinski's reflex occurs when the big toe moves toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked. This reflex, or sign, is normal in younger children, but abnormal after the age of 2 The presence of a Babinski's reflex after age 2 is a sign of damage to the nerve paths connecting the spinal cord and the brain

59 Babinski on Infant

60 Babinski Explanation

61 Moro Reflex It is normally present in all infants/newborns up to 4 or 5 months of age Absence indicates a profound disorder of the motor system. Persistence of the Moro response beyond 4 or 5 months of age is noted only in infants with severe neurological defects It is believed to be the only unlearned fear in human newborns

62 Moro

63 Tonic (Fencers) Reflex known as the “fencing reflex" because of the characteristic position of the infant's arms and head, which resembles that of a trained fencer. Beyond the first months of life may indicate that the child has developmental delays, at which point the reflex is atypical or abnormal. For example, in children with cerebral palsy the reflexes may persist and even be more pronounced.

64 Tonic

65 Knee Jerk or (DTR) reflex The reflex that the doctor checks by tapping your knee is called the patellar, or knee-jerk, reflex. It is also known as a deep tendon reflex (DTR) This tap stretches the tendon and the muscle in the thigh that connects to it.tendonmuscle A message then gets sent to the spinal cord that the muscle has been stretched.The spinal cord very quickly sends a message back to the muscle telling it to contract. The contraction of the muscle causes your lower leg to kick out.

66 Knee Jerk (Patellar) Reflex

67 Causes of Abnormal Knee Jerk Response Hyperactive (knee jerks too much): ALS, brain tumor, stroke, liver disease, hypocalcemia (low calcium), hypomagnesemia (low magnesium), hypothermia, multiple sclerosis, preeclampsia, spinal cord lesion and tetanus. Hypoactive (knee doesn't jerk enough): botulism, nerve inflammation, peripheral neuropathy, polio, untreated syphillis, diabetes, alcoholism, arthritis, etc.

68 Galant Reflex ://www.medicalvideos.eu/video/eb2712fc2af d7dd/Galant-Reflex--Clinical-Pediatrics ://www.medicalvideos.eu/video/eb2712fc2af d7dd/Galant-Reflex--Clinical-Pediatrics

69 Reflexes & seizures Seizures: Grand Mal, Petit Mal, Idiopathic, Absence – often preceded by signs Types of reflexes: Knee Jerk, Babinski, Moro, Fencers (Tonic) Primitive reflexes in adulthood often sign of neurological disease Absence of reflexes in infancy – neurologicial problem Normal adult reflexes protect us. Seizures: Grand Mal, Petit Mal, Idiopathic, Absence – often preceded by signs Types of reflexes: Knee Jerk, Babinski, Moro, Fencers (Tonic) Primitive reflexes in adulthood often sign of neurological disease Absence of reflexes in infancy – neurologicial problem Normal adult reflexes protect us.

70 What have we learned? Cerebral Cortex – covers your brain, gray matter Hemispheres-each half of the brain that has different roles. Hemisphere dominance is a theory…what do you think? Corpus Callosum: The Newburgh Beacon Bridge of the Interstate 84 of your brain Frontal Lobe: reasoning, higher level thought processes Parietal Lobe: motor strip, sensory strip Temporal Lobe: hearing, speech Occipital Lobe: sight Medulla: autonomic functions Cerebellum: balance, coordination Pons and RAS: sleep, recognition of faces Prefrontal lobe: seat of the soul, personal memories Cerebral Cortex – covers your brain, gray matter Hemispheres-each half of the brain that has different roles. Hemisphere dominance is a theory…what do you think? Corpus Callosum: The Newburgh Beacon Bridge of the Interstate 84 of your brain Frontal Lobe: reasoning, higher level thought processes Parietal Lobe: motor strip, sensory strip Temporal Lobe: hearing, speech Occipital Lobe: sight Medulla: autonomic functions Cerebellum: balance, coordination Pons and RAS: sleep, recognition of faces Prefrontal lobe: seat of the soul, personal memories

71 Lower brain: primitive reactions Midbrain: smell, emotion (limbic system) The blood brain barrier protects your brain from infection Myelin: fatty sheath that covers nerves similar to an electrical wire – lesions can cause neurological symptoms Right Brain/Left Brain Theory (R=holistic L= analytical Neurons: Motor = brain to body, Sensory = body to brain, Interneuron=connections between nerves, Receptors=receive neurotransmitter Lower brain: primitive reactions Midbrain: smell, emotion (limbic system) The blood brain barrier protects your brain from infection Myelin: fatty sheath that covers nerves similar to an electrical wire – lesions can cause neurological symptoms Right Brain/Left Brain Theory (R=holistic L= analytical Neurons: Motor = brain to body, Sensory = body to brain, Interneuron=connections between nerves, Receptors=receive neurotransmitter

72 Neurotransmitters: electrical/chemical messages passed along by neurons Serotonin: happy chemical Dopamine: movement Acetylcholine: sleep, attention Endorphins: natural morphine Types of reflexes: Knee Jerk, Babinski, Moro, Fencers (Tonic) Primitive reflexes in adulthood often sign of neurological disease Normal adult reflexes protect us. Neurotransmitters: electrical/chemical messages passed along by neurons Serotonin: happy chemical Dopamine: movement Acetylcholine: sleep, attention Endorphins: natural morphine Types of reflexes: Knee Jerk, Babinski, Moro, Fencers (Tonic) Primitive reflexes in adulthood often sign of neurological disease Normal adult reflexes protect us.

73 Exit Quiz

74 Midterm Neuroscience Test – Midterm Notes: Online and Review Sheets Today: Intro to Awakenings – Thurs. Fri. Midterm Mon. Awakenings (end)

75 Do Now: Readings: Mystery of the Forgotten Plague Oliver Sacks Introduction: Awakenings

76 Dr. Oliver Sacks In 1966 Dr. Sacks began working as a consulting neurologist for Beth Abraham Hospital in the Bronx, a chronic care hospital where he encountered an extraordinary group of patients, many of whom had spent decades in strange, frozen states, like human statues, unable to initiate movement. He recognized these patients as survivors of the great pandemic of sleepy sickness that had swept the world from 1916 to 1927, and treated them with a then- experimental drug, L-dopa, which enabled them to come back to life. They became the subjects of his book Awakenings, which later inspired a play by Harold Pinter ("A Kind of Alaska") and the Oscar-nominated feature film ("Awakenings") with Robert De Niro and Robin Williams. Dr. Sacks is a NYT bestselling author and award winning Neurologist. You can reach him at This film is based on a true story

77 Awakenings Day 1 Questions 1.What are Leonard’s first symptoms? 2.What is Dr. “Sacks” real job description? 3.What is his reaction to Bronx Chronic Hospital? 4.What do you notice about the “statues”? 5.Would you bother to treat these patients if you were in charge of this unit? Why or why not?

78 Awakenings Day 2 Questions 1.What do the other doctors think Lucy’s catching the ball is? 2.What is the difference between a reflex and a reaction? 3.In reference to neuron activity – why would the fact that this is a “reaction” rather than a reflex mean for the patient? 4.How does Dr. “Sacks” convince the staff to consider these patients more than just the “garden”? 5.Which patient does he focus on first and why?

79 Midterm Review Introduction to Psychology Psychological Approaches and Modalities Famous Early Psychologists Freud and his Theory of Personality & Psycho- sexual Stages of Development Research Methods & Ethics Neuroscience Unit

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