3What do we know that we need to know? types and location of endocrine glands including pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonadsrelationship between the hypothalamus and pituitaryproduction site, target organ and effect of hormones associated with the specified glandsfeedback loops involving endocrine activityhormonal modes of action.
4Types Glands in the Body Exocrine glands secrete into a duct that carries the secretion to the body surface or to one of the body cavities. Sweat glands, mucous glands, salivary glands and the glands of the alimentary canal are examples of exocrine glands.Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the extracellular fluid that surrounds the cells making up the gland. The secretion then usually passes into the capillaries to be transported by the blood. Endocrine glands are sometimes called ductless glands.
6Pituitary and Hypothalamus sitting in the tree…. Hypothalamus- base of brain Pituitary- just under Hypothalamus Joined by the INFUNDIBULUM
7Pituitary/ Hypothalamus Communication The hypothalamus produces many different hormones.Some of them are carried by the blood to the anterior lobe of the pituitary where they stimulate or inhibit the release of hormones made in the anterior lobe.Other hormones pass along the nerve fibres from the hypothalamus to the posterior lobe of the pituitary where they are then secreted.
9Structure of Pituitary ANTERIOR- glandular tissue POSTERIOR- nervous tissue
10Anterior PituitaryHormone secretion regulated by releasing and inhibiting factors from hypothalamusFSHLHGHTSHACTHProlactin
11ROAD BLOCKCREATE AN ANAGRAM TO HELP YOU REMEMBER THE ANTERIOR HORMONES!!Eg. A Fishing Line Gets Thrown After PinkiesOr A Good Friend Lets People Talk AfterOr just learn one of these
12FSHFemale- acts on ovaries to stimulate the follicle that contains the eggMale- stimulates production and maturation of sperm in the testes
13LHFemale- Works with FSH to bring about ovulation and form corpus luteum. (ovaries and uterus)Male- LH stimulates interstitial cells in the testes to secrete male sex hormones
14GH Stimulates body growth particularly growth of the skeleton. It increases the rate at which amino acids are taken up by cells and built into proteins.GH is secreted throughout life as it helps to maintain the size of organs once maturity is reached
15TSHStimulates production and release of hormones from the thyroid gland
16ACTHcontrols production and release of some of the hormones from the cortex of the adrenal gland
17Prolactinworks with other hormones to initiate and maintain milk secretion in females (mammary glands)
18POSTERIOR PITUITARYreleases the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormoneneither is manufactured in the posterior lobe. Both hormones are produced in special nerve cells in the hypothalamus of the brain.These cells have long extensions that pass through the infundibulum to the posterior lobe.Hormones manufactured in the cells move down the extensions and are stored ready for release into the bloodstream. The release of the hormones is triggered by nerve impulses initiated in the hypothalamus and conducted along the cell extensions
19OXYTOXIN Stimulates contraction of the muscles of the uterus. It Is released in large quantities during labour.Oxytocin also stimulates contraction of cells in the mammary glands, resulting in release of milk during breastfeeding
20ADHcauses the kidneys to remove water from urine that is forming. This water is returned to the bloodstream.In this way, ADH helps to retain fluid within the body.At higher concentrations, ADH can also cause constriction of small arteries, the arterioles.
22THYROIDThyroxinecontrols body metabolism by regulating reactions in which complex molecules are broken down to release energy and in which complex molecules are synthesised from simple ones.The overall effect of thyroxine is to bring about the release of energy and, since some of the energy released is in the form of heat, to maintain body temperature.Thyroxine is secreted in response to thyroid stimulating hormone from the anterior lobe of the pituitary.