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Chapter 49 Nervous Systems. Objectives To learn: the nervous systems of different animals the nervous systems of vertebrates the parts of the brain and.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 49 Nervous Systems. Objectives To learn: the nervous systems of different animals the nervous systems of vertebrates the parts of the brain and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 49 Nervous Systems

2 Objectives To learn: the nervous systems of different animals the nervous systems of vertebrates the parts of the brain and their functions

3 Nervous Systems of Animals Hydra (cnidarian)Sea Star (echinoderm) Absence of clustering neurons Radial symmetry Habitat of freshwater ponds, lakes, & streams Nerve net ▫Series of interconnected nerve cells that control the contraction and expansion of the gastrovascular cavity Set of radial nerves connecting to a central nerve ring Radial symmetry Habitat of oceans

4 Nervous Systems of Animals Planarian (flatworm)Nematode (nematoda) Small brain and longitudinal nerve cords constitute the CNS Bilateral symmetry Habitat of both saltwater & freshwater ponds & rivers 4 peripheral nerves run the length of the body Nerve ring surrounding pharynx, serving as the brain Bilateral symmetry Habitat of oceans to soils

5 Nervous Systems of Animals Clam (mollusca)Squid (mollusca) Nerve network & series of paired ganglia No brain Bilateral symmetry Habitat of mud & sand in bodies of water Complex brains Bilateral symmetry Cephalopod Habitat of various oceans

6 Nervous Systems of Vertebrates Vertebrates (chordata) ▫Brain and spinal cord form the Central Nervous System (CNS)  Brain provides integrative power that underlies the complex behavior of vertebrates  Spinal cord, running along the spine, conveys info to & from the brain & generates basic patterns of locomotion ▫Nerves and ganglia form the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  Transmits info to & from the CNS  Plays an important role in regulating movement & internal environment ▫Have backbones and spinal cords

7 Spinal Cord Acts independently of the brain as part of the simple nerve circuits that produce reflexes ▫The body’s automatic responses to certain stimuli Protects the body by triggering a rapid, involuntary response to a particular stimulus ▫ex//: automatically pulling your hand off of a hot surface

8 Fig Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Cranial nerves Brain Central nervous system (CNS) Ganglia outside CNS Spinal nerves Spinal cord

9 Comprehension Check Label each component as either the part of the central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS): 1. ____ cranial nerves 2. ____ spinal nerves 3. ____ brain 4. ____ spinal cord 5. ____ ganglia PNS CNS PNS

10 White Matter v. Gray Matter White matter- consists of bundled axons that have myelin sheaths, which give the axons a whitish appearance ▫in the spinal cord, it lies on the outside, consistent w/ the function in linking the CNS & PNS ▫In the brain, it lies on the inside, reflecting the role of signaling between neurons of the brain in learning, feeling emotions, processing info, etc. Gray matter- consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons Gray matter White matter Ventricles

11 Glia- cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, & provide support and protection for neurons in the brain. Ependymal cells- line the ventricles & have cilia that promote circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid Microglia- protect the nervous system from invading microorganisms Oligodendrocytes- functions in axon myelination Radial glia- critical role in the development of the nervous system by giving rise to the CNS in embryos, and can act as stem cells Astrocytes- provide a structural support for neurons & regulate the extracellular concentrations of ions and neurotransmitters ▫can facilitate info transfer at synapses & in some instances can release neurotransmitters ▫Astrocytes adjacent to active neurons cause nearby blood vessels to dilate, increasing blood flow to the area & enabling the neurons to obtain oxygen & glucose more quickly ▫During development, they induce cells that line the capillaries in the CNS to form tight junctions ▫Can act as stem cells

12 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System- regulates the internal environment by controlling smooth & cardiac muscles and the organs of the digestive, cardiovascular, excretory, & endocrine systems. It is generally involuntary. ▫Enteric Division- consists of networks of neurons in the digestive tract, pancreas, & gallbladder. Neurons of the enteric division control secretion & also control the smooth muscles that produce peristalsis. ▫Parasympathetic Nervous System- activation causes opposite responses that promote calming & a return to self-maintenance functions.  lowers heart rate  Enhances digestion  Increases glycogen production ▫Sympathetic Nervous System- activation corresponds to arousal & energy generation.  Heart beats faster  Digestion is inhibited  Liver converts glycogen to glucose  Secretion of epinephrine (adrenaline) from adrenal gland

13 Fig Efferent neurons Locomotion Motor system Autonomic nervous system Afferent (sensory) neurons PNS Hearing CirculationGas exchangeDigestion Hormone action Enteric division Sympathetic division Parasympathetic division

14 Parts of the Brain

15 Reticular System Reticular Formation- a diffuse network of neurons in the core of the brainstem. ▫determines which incoming info reaches the cerebral cortex ▫Filters info traveling to the cerebral cortex  The more info the cortex receives, the more alert and aware a person will be

16 Comprehension Check Match each brain component to its corresponding function: 1. ___ Pons 2. ___ Thalamus 3. ___ Cerebrum 4. ___ Midbrain 5. ___ Hypothalamus 6. ___ Epithalamus 7. ___ Cerebellum 8. ___ Medulla Oblongata a. Controls homeostasis functions, including breathing, heart & blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting & digestion b. Part of brainstem; helps control breathing; conducts impulses to & from the cerebellum, midbrain & medulla c. Receives & integrates types of sensory info & sends coded sensory info along neurons to specific regions of the forebrain d. Coordinates skilled skeletal muscle movement; involved in posture & balance; learning & remembering motor skills e. Relays all sensory input to the cerebral cortex; involved in skeletal muscle actions & memory processing f. Connects limbic system to other parts of the brain; secretion of melatonin by pineal gland & regulation of motor pathways & emotions g. Controls & integrates the autonomic nervous system; regulates hormones, emotional behavior, temperature, eating & drinking h. Intergrating center for memory, learning, emotions & other highly complex functions of the CNS A B C D E F G H

17 Left and Right Hemispheres Left HemisphereRight Hemisphere Receives info from, and controls the movement of, the right side of the body Governs ability to express language More adept at math and logical operations Receives info from, and controls the movement of, the left side of the body Dominant in recognition of faces and patterns Involved in spatial relations and nonverbal thinking

18 Cerebral Cortex ▫Parietal Lobe- receives and processes sensory info, involved with speech ▫Occipital Lobe- involved with vision ▫Temporal Lobe- involved with memory, emotion, hearing, and language ▫Frontal Lobe- involved with decision making, problem solving, and planning

19 Language Recognition & Production Wernicke’s AreaBroca’s Area located in the left temporal lobe Involved with: ▫Language Comprehension ▫Language Recognition ▫Language Interpretation located in the lower portion of the left frontal lobe. Involved with: ▫Speech Production ▫Language Processing

20 Corpus Callosum thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres Allows communication between the two hemispheres When severed surgically, it stops communication between the two hemispheres (called corpus callosotomy) ▫Used to treat epileptic seizures ▫A patient with a split brain, when shown an image in his or her left visual field will be unable to vocally name what he or she has seen. This is because the speech-control center is in the left side of the brain in most people, and the image from the left visual field is sent only to the right side of the brain. Since communication between the two sides of the brain is inhibited, the patient cannot name what the right side of the brain is seeing. UL4tdE


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