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The Nervous System.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nervous System."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nervous System

2 Good Morning… Bell Ringer #1: Reflect back over winter break.

3 Bell Ringer #2 Review your notes from last class.
Answer the following question using those notes: How did your nervous system help you conduct the activity you did in the computer lab (red light/green light activity)? Yes, this is the same question you answered for bell ringer number 1. Use what you learned last class to add to or change your answer from bell ringer #1.

4 Bell Ringer #3 For each profession, tell me if the individual would most likely be right-brained or left-brained. Architect Writer of Fiction Books Mathematician Art Teacher Engineer Musician Lawyer Scientist

5 Bell Ringer 4 – Read the following passage…
While lying in bed one night, John heard a barking noise that seemed to be coming from outside. He looked out the window and saw his yellow lab named Murphy had gotten loose! As he rushed down the stairs to fetch Murphy, John tripped and fell to the bottom of the stairs. He was in a great deal of pain! He then managed to make his way to the bathroom to take some pain relievers. John read the label on the bottle – he was to take 2 pills.

6 Bell Ringer 4 con’t… After reading the story, explain how John may have used ALL 4 lobes of the cerebrum during this mishap! Use your notes!

7 This is awesome! O lny srmat poelpe can raed tihs.
I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, t he olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rgh it pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt! if you can raed tihs psas it on !!"

8 Welcome Mr. Durkin!

9 The Nervous System 1. Two main divisions
a. Central Nervous System (CNS) – consists of brain and spinal cord b. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – includes nerves extending from brain and spinal cord c. The CNS receives messages from the PNS, interprets them, and then sends out a response.


11 Neurons 2. Neurons - nerve cells that transmit messages to and from the spinal cord and brain a. Sensory Neurons – carry messages FROM body TO CNS ex. Playing games in computer lab. When light switches to green, a sensory neuron transmits a message from your eye to your brain

12 Neurons b. Motor Neurons – carry message TO body FROM CNS
ex. Your brain sends a signal through a motor neuron to tell your finger to click the mouse. c. Interneurons – connect neurons


14 What does a real neuron look like?

15 3. Structure and Functions of Neurons
1. Dendrites – receive information and transmit impulses toward cell body 2. Cell Body – large area which contains cell nucleus or power plant 3. Nucleus – command center of the neuron

16 4. Axon – transmit impulses away from cell body and toward axon terminal
5. Axon Terminals – branched structures at the ends of neurons. 6. Myelin Sheath – insulating coat which covers the axon. This helps messages relay faster.


18 Neuron

19 Nerves of the Body

20 Motor Unit Motor Unit – A neuron and all the muscles it gives power to.

21 The Central Nervous System
1. The brain a. Helps you think, remember, reason, feel emotion, and coordinate muscle movement b. Divided into three main parts: cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem

22 The Brain

23 The Central Nervous System
2. The Cerebrum a. largest, most complex part of brain b. right and left sides communicate with each other to coordinate movement. Right controls left side and vice versa. c. left hemisphere is for more concrete thinking d. right hemisphere is for abstract thinking

24 Are you left or right brained?!

25 The Central Nervous System
3. Four lobes (parts) of the cerebrum a. Frontal Lobe –use of language b. Parietal Lobe – sensory information, including feelings of heat, cold, pain, touch c. Occipital Lobe – Controls sense of sight d. Temporal – sense of hearing and smell

26 Frontal Lobe Exercise: Unscramble the following words:

27 Parietal Lobe Exercise: 1. Blow on your hand 2
Parietal Lobe Exercise: 1. Blow on your hand 2. Now, puff your breath on your hand

28 Temporal Lobe Exercise: Whisper down the lane! Shhhh!

29 Whisper… She sells seashells by the sea shore.
Eleven owls licked eleven little liquorice lollipops." If two witches were watching two watches, which witch would watch which watch?“ If you want to buy, buy, if you don't want to buy, bye bye!"

30 Occipital Lobe Exercise:





35 Lobes of the Brain

36 The Central Nervous System
4. The Cerebellum a. second largest part of brain b. maintains body’s posture and balance c. coordinates complex muscle movements like serving a volleyball or playing violin

37 Balancing Competition!!!

38 The Central Nervous System
5. The Brain Stem a. 3 inch long stalk of nerve cells that connect the spinal cord to the rest of the brain

39 The Central Nervous System
b. five parts 1. Medulla Oblongata – regulates heartbeat, breathing rate 2. Pons – controls muscles of eyes and face. 3. Midbrain – controls pupil size 4. Thalamus – relays incoming information from the eyes, ears, and pressure receptors in skin 5. Hypothalamus – regulates body temp, appetite, sleep

40 Brain Stem

41 Activity 1 Find pulse/HR 25 Jumping Jacks! Jog in place!

42 Brain Stem 1. Medulla Oblongata – regulates heartbeat, breathing rate

43 Activity 2 Watch the video!

44 Activity 2

45 2. Pons – controls muscles of eyes and face.
Brain Stem 2. Pons – controls muscles of eyes and face.

46 Activity 3 Find a partner… Look into their eyes!!! oooooooo

47 3. Midbrain – controls pupil size

48 Activity 4 What does a switch board do?

49 4. Thalamus – relays incoming information from the eyes, ears, and pressure receptors in skin

50 Activity 5 Imagine you are stranded on a cold (20 degree) deserted island with no supplies, food, or shelter. You haven’t slept in two days, nor have you ate in two days. How would you be feeling???

51 5. Hypothalamus – regulates body temp, appetite, sleep

52 The Peripheral System 1. Broken into two parts
a. Autonomic Nervous System – controls involuntary functions such as digestion and heart rate - you cannot control this; it is automatic! (autonomic) b. Somatic Nervous System – voluntary responses that are under your control - feeling and itch on your skin and scratching it, or giving someone a high five

53 The Peripheral System 2. Autonomic Nervous System
a. Broken down into two smaller networks b. First part is the Sympathetic nervous system Watch these clips…

54 Sympathetic Nervous System
- kicks in when you are startled. Your heart rate increases. Also, blood vessels dilate to allow for greater blood flow. - “Fight or flight response” - Rush of adrenaline - Example… You pick! Write one down…

55 So, how exactly does all this work?

56 The Peripheral System c. The second part: Parasympathetic nervous system – opposite of sympathetic nervous system - slows heartbeat, relaxes blood vessels, lowers blood pressure

57 Problems of the Nervous System
1. Headaches – caused by muscle tension, eyestrain, sinus infection, dehydration, or food allergies 2. Head injuries a. concussion – a temporary loss of consciousness

58 Problems of the Nervous System
3. Spinal Injuries a. swelling of spinal cord tissue can result in temporary loss of nerve function b. if spinal cord is severed, you may become paralyzed.

59 Problems of the Nervous System
4. Meningitis – inflammation of the spinal and cranial meninges caused by a virus or bacteria a. symptoms include fever, headache, light and sound sensitivity, and neck stiffness. b. can result in death

60 How to care for/prevent these problems:
1. Eat a well-balanced diet, exercise regularly, get lots of sleep! 2. Wear protective devices – helmet, seat belt 3. Stay away from drugs and alcohol!!!




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