2An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy is the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationship to one another.Physiology is the study of how the body and its parts work or function.Structure determines what functions can take place.
3Levels of Structural Organization The human body exhibits many levels of structural complexity.The simplest level of the structural ladder is the chemical level. At this level, atoms, tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules.Molecules associate in specific ways to form microscopic cells.Cells, the smallest units of all living things, are made up of atoms, elements, compounds, and molecules.Individual cells vary widely in size and shape, reflecting their particular functions in the body.
4The AtomLiving and nonliving things are made up of tiny units called atoms.The nucleus is the center core of an atom.
5The AtomThe nucleus is made up of particles called protons and neutrons.Protons have a positive charge (+1) and neutrons have no electrical charge (0).Electrons are negatively charged particles (-1)that revolve around thenucleus at differentdistances from thenucleus.
6Multicellular Organisms A multicellular organism is a group of cells that live and work together in one organism.There is differentiation and cell specialization.Differentiation means cells or tissues change from relatively generalized to specialized kinds.Cell Specialization means a cell becomes specialized for just one function.Advantage of having cell specialization: A cell that only has to do one function can be much more efficient at that one job.Disadvantage of cell specialization: The cells are dependent upon one another. If one group of cells fails to do its job, the other cells will perish.
7Multicellular Organisms LEVELS OF CELL ORGANIZATION:Cell: the smallest unit of a living organismTissue: a group of similar cells all performing a similar activityOrgan: several tissues functioning as a unitOrgan systems: systems that form a multicellular organismOrganism: all the various systems that form a multicellular organism
9structural organization from cell to tissue to organ to organ system (smallest to largest)
10Organ System OverviewThe integumentary system is the external covering of the body, or skin.The skeletal system consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints.The muscular system are formed by the skeletal muscles.Tendons are part of the muscular system and connect muscles to bones.Ligaments are also part of the muscular system and connect bone to bone.
14Organ System OverviewThe nervous system is the body’s fast-acting control center that consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.The endocrine system controls body activities by producing chemical molecules called hormones, and releasing them into the blood to travel to relatively distant target organs.The cardiovascular system includes the heart and blood vessels.
16The Human BrainThe human brain weighs only about three pounds and has three main parts:The cerebrum fills up most of your skull. It is involved in remembering, problem solving, thinking, and feeling. It also controls movement.The cerebellum sits at the back of your head, under the cerebrum. It controls coordination and balance.The brain stem sits beneath your cerebrum in front of your cerebellum. It connects the brain to the spinal cord and controls automatic functions such as breathing, digestion, heart rate and blood pressure.
17The cerebrum, or cerebral cortex, is the largest part of the human brain. The cerebrum is associated with higher brain function such as thought, memory, consciousness, action, and intelligence. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes“ and includes the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.Frontal Lobe - associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solvingParietal Lobe - associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuliOccipital Lobe - associated with visual processingTemporal Lobe - associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech
18The cerebellum, or "little brain," is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex.The cerebellum is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance.The brain stem lies between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain. The brain stem is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure, movement of the eyes and mouth, relaying sensory messages (hot, pain, loud, etc.), hunger, consciousness, body temperature, involuntary muscle movements, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.The brain stem is made of the midbrain, pons, and medulla.
23pituitary gland: small gland located at the base of the brain that secretes nine hormones to regulate homeostasis, one of which is a growth hormonepineal gland: small gland in the vertebrae brain that produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functionsthyroid gland: large gland is found in the neck and functions to control how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones.
24Glucagon raises blood glucose levels. thymus gland: a specialized organ of the immune system that "educates" T-lymphocytes (T cells), which are critical cells of the immune systemadrenal gland: sit atop the kidneys and chiefly function to release hormones in response to stress, particularly cortisol (increases blood sugar) and adrenaline (fight or flight response)pancreas: a gland organ in the digestive system that functions in the endocrine system by producing several hormones including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide, and as a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist the absorption of nutrients and the digestion in the small intestineGlucagon raises blood glucose levels.Insulin lowers blood glucose levels.
25Organ Systems Overview The lymphatic system is complementary to that of the cardiovascular system, and includes lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs.The respiratory system keeps the body supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide, and consists of the nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.The digestive system breaks down food and delivers the products to the blood for dispersal to the body cells.
29major organs of the lymphatic system and their locations The lymphatic system is the complementary system to that of the cardiovascular system, and includes lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs. The function of the lymphatic system is to remove excess fluid and some pathogens from the body.
30Organ System OverviewThe urinary system removes the nitrogen-containing wastes such as urea and uric acid from the blood and flushes them from the body in urine.The reproductive system exists primarily to produce offspring.
32Maintaining Life: Necessary Life Functions Every living organism must be able to maintain the boundaries so that its “inside” remains distinct from its “outside.”Movement includes all the activities promoted by the muscular system that propels the body from one place to another.Responsiveness, or irritability, is the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then to react to them.
33Digestion is the process of breaking down ingested food into simple molecules that can then be absorbed into the blood for delivery to all body cells by the cardiovascular system.Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that occur within body cells.Excretion is the process of removing excreta, or wastes, from the body.Reproduction, the production of offspring, can occur on the cellular or organismal level.Growth is an increase in size, usually accomplished by an increase in the number of cells.
34Survival NeedsThe goal of nearly all body systems is to maintain life.To maintain life, and organism requires certain factors called survival needs:1.) Nutrients2.) Oxygen3.) Water4.) Body temperature must be maintained.5.) Appropriate atmospheric pressure must be maintained on the surface of the body.
35Homeostasis Homeostasis is a type of biological balance. Cells and organisms MUST maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing.This includes maintaining:- water levels- temperature- sugar, salt, and chemical compositions
36Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Communication within the body is essential for homeostasis and is accomplished chiefly by the nervous and endocrine systems, which use electrical signals delivered by nerves or bloodborne hormones, respectively, as information carriers.All homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three components:a receptora control centeran effector
37A receptor is a type of sensor that monitors and responds to changes in the environment. Information flows from the receptor to the control center along the afferent pathway.The control center determines the level (set point) at which a variable is to be maintained, analyzes the information it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action.The effector provides the means for the control center’s response (output) to the stimuli. Information flows from the control center to the effector along the efferent pathway.
38Feedback MechanismsIn a negative feedback loop, the net effect of the response to the stimulus is to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity.This is similar to a home heating system connected to a thermostat.An example of a negative feedback loop would be the hypothalamus helping to regulate body temperature.Another example of a negative feedback loop would be the regulation of blood glucose levels or pH levels within the body.
40Feedback MechanismsA positive feedback loop tends to increase the original disturbance (stimulus) and to push the variable farther from its original value.Examples of positive feed back mechanisms are much more rare in the body, such as blood clotting and the birth of a baby.During blood clotting, the positive feedback loop is initiated when injured tissue releases signal chemicals that activate platelets in the blood.An activated platelet releases chemicals to activate more platelets, causing a rapid cascade and the formation of a blood clot.
41Feedback MechanismsAnother example of a positive feedback loop occurs during childbirth.During childbirth, when a contraction occurs, the hormone oxytocin is released into the body, which stimulates further contractions. This results in contractions increasing in amplitude and frequency to hasten childbirth.Most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback mechanisms.
43Homeostatic Imbalance Homeostatic imbalance results when internal body conditions become less efficient and less stable.This can be caused by aging, which can lead to disease and a greater risk of illness.Homeostatic imbalance in the body is brought about by abnormal conditions of the body’s physiological mechanisms.