Presentation on theme: "Understanding the Science of Learning 2010 Grinnell Middle School 2011 Day 3."— Presentation transcript:
Understanding the Science of Learning 2010 Grinnell Middle School 2011 Day 3
Motivation (CLICCCK) CEI (Iowa Core) The Adolescent Brain (snow day) The Adolescent Brain (postponed) The Adolescent Brain This year at a glance… Oct. 6 Dec. 1 Feb. 2 Apr. 6 Apr. 20
Learning Goals for today’s workshop: To learn about basic differences between the adolescent brain and the brains of young children and/or adults To identify the skills, abilities and processes that often prove challenging for adolescents, due to their still- developing brains. To understand the implications this information might have for classroom practice. Microsoft Office Images, 2011
“As it turns out, teenagers may, indeed, be a bit crazy. But they are crazy according to a primal blueprint. They are crazy by design.” Barbara Strauch, The Primal Teen
What we KNOW… PET MRI Image source: Google images fMRI DTI
So… what do you remember- or know- about the adolescent brain? What are you still curious about?
Adolescent Sleep Patterns Adolescents and Risk Taking Emotional Development Multitasking (working memory) Frontal Lobe Development Fundamental Differences Effects of Drugs/ Alcohol How do we know what we know? Possible Topics for Today: The Adolescent Brain
How do we know what we know about the adolescent brain? www.positscience.com 2010 Posit Science ?
How do we know what we know about the adolescent brain? Dr. Jay GieddPhineas Gage These two men have played key roles… http://www.interscoop.com/media/phine.jpg http://www.nih.gov/nihrecord/08_12_2005/images/teenbrain.jpg
Google image source: http://www.sruweb.com/~walsh/gage1.jpghttp://www.sruweb.com/~walsh/gage1.jpg Phineas Gage Image source: Smithsonian magazine, January 2010
Google image source: http://www.brown.edu/Research/Memlab/py47/diagrams/phineas.jpghttp://www.brown.edu/Research/Memlab/py47/diagrams/phineas.jpg Phineas Gage: September 1848 Age 26 Died: 1861
Before the accident… After the accident… Hard-working Respected Personable Efficient Effective Responsible Unreliable Irrational Impulsive Disagreeable Difficult to get along with Overly emotional Indecisive Foul-mouthed Anti-social Irresponsible
Plan for the future Make decisions Control impulses Assess Risk Set goals & priorities Make sound judgments Reason Plan & organize multiple tasks Control emotions
Dr. Jay Giedd Brain Imaging Technologies PET Scan CT Scan MRI fMRI Google image source: http://www.loni.ucla.edu/~thompson/OZARKS2001/37_schizo_pmaps_loss.jpghttp://www.loni.ucla.edu/~thompson/OZARKS2001/37_schizo_pmaps_loss.jpg
Clarify with your tablemates… How have we come to learn about the adolescent brain? Topics Menu How might educators use the new information that is emerging?
What do we know about the sleep patterns of adolescents? www.positscience.com 2010 Posit Science
What do we know about adolescent sleep patterns? struggle to get up in the morning claim they are not tired at bedtime Sleep late on weekends Many adolescents… Image Source: iCLIPART for Schools
What do we know about adolescent sleep patterns? go to school each day in a “fog” struggle to concentrate in early morning classes have difficulty remembering the content in early morning classes feel drowsy and irritable by mid-afternoon Many adolescents… Image Source: iCLIPART for Schools
What do we know about adolescent sleep patterns? They are regulated by “circadian rhythms” (the brain’s natural “body clock”) They differ from those of younger children & those of adults The circadian rhythms of adolescents “program” them to stay awake longer into the night, & to wake-up later in the morning Image Source: Microsoft Office Clip Art
So… Just how much sleep do adolescents need? Permission granted: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, www.sleepeducation.comwww.sleepeducation.com
Why does this matter? Without adequate sleep, adolescents… Have a more difficult time holding a focus on the task at hand (class activities & lessons) Have more difficulty in thinking creatively and solving problems Are more prone to errors Are more irritable; less patient May be more impulsive Miss out on the consolidation of learning that takes place during sleep Image Source: iCLIPART for Schools
What can educators do? Inform parents re: adolescents & sleep Stick to a schedule Discourage long daytime naps on weekends Discourage caffeine use during evening hours Establish a “turn-off time” for TV, computer, cell phone, iPod Encourage calming activities just before bedtime : iCLIPART for Schools Inform students re: adolescents & sleep Incorporate movement, engagement
Clarify with your tablemates what you’ve just learned about the sleep patterns of adolescents. Topics Menu What might educators DO because of what we now know…?
What do we know about adolescents & risk-taking? www.positscience.com 2010 Posit Science
Risk-TakingThe Adolescent Brain: Image source: Google images, 2011 Scientific American Mind: Dec. 06-Jan. 07 254 9 th -12 th grade students were asked to estimate the likelihood that a sexually active teenage girl would contract an STD
Risk-TakingThe Adolescent Brain: Scientific American Mind: Dec. 06-Jan. 07 254 9 th -12 th grade students were asked to estimate the likelihood that a sexually active teenage girl would contract an STD
Risk-Taking: Adults vs. Adolescents For what amount of money would you be willing to participate in a game of Russian Roulette?
The Fuzzy-Trace Theory… Gist vs. Verbatim Valerie F. Reyna, Cornell University; Frank Farley, Temple University; Charles Brainerd, Cornell University, Scientific American Mind, Dec. 06-Jan. 07 Risk-Taking: Adults vs. Adolescents
Clarify with your tablemates what you’ve just learned about adolescents and risk-taking. Topics Menu How might you use this information as you work with middle level learners?
What do we know about drugs, alcohol, addiction and the adolescent brain? www.positscience.com 2010 Posit Science
Alcohol, Drugs and Addiction The Adolescent Brain:
Research suggests that adolescents… become addicted more strongly… have a more difficult time quitting… are more susceptible to “drug-cue associations”… are more susceptible to relapse, once they have quit…
Clarify with your tablemates what you know about adolescents and drugs, alcohol and addiction. Topics Menu What are you currently doing to address this issue… and what more might you do?
What is actually going on (developmentally) inside the adolescent brain? The Adolescent Brain www.positscience.com 2010 Posit Science
A thickening of the brain’s gray matter… caused by an overproduction of connections between neurons Exuberance… Pruning… Google image source: http://www.brainexplorer.org/brain-images/graymatter.jpghttp://www.brainexplorer.org/brain-images/graymatter.jpg A systematic pruning away of unused connections… between neurons
Myelination… …the developmental process in which neurons are coated with a fatty, waxy substance… that insulates and speeds signals as they pass through one brain cell and on to another… Myelin sheath
The Frontal Lobes Plan for the future Make decisions Control impulses Assess Risk Set goals & priorities Make sound judgments Reason Plan & organize multiple tasks Control emotions
Clarify with your tablemates what you’ve just learned about myelination and pruning in the adolescent brain. Topics Menu What implications does this information have for middle level educators?
What do we know about multitasking and the adolescent brain? www.positscience.com 2010 Posit Science
What do we know about multitasking? First… a bit about working memory Right behind the forehead Also called the prefrontal cortex Processes conscious thoughts Limited in its capacity Develops with age… to a point www.positscience.com 2010 Posit Science
15 13 11 9 7 5 *Mental Age *Plus or Minus 2 Memory Space (M – Space)
1-8-0-0-3-7-5-2-8-7-2 18 - 00 - 37 - 52 - 87 - 2 1-800-375-2872 1-800 DR LAURA Working memory…
XCN NPH DFB ICI ANC AAX X CNN PHD FBI CIA NCAA X Working memory…
Factual and Conceptual Knowledge ( organized for retrieval & application) Bloom’s Taxonomy Rigor & Relevance Framework BSCS 5E Instructional Model Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate
The Cocktail Party Effect: The brain is usually able to block out competing stimuli, in order to focus on the task at hand. (but not always) The limitations of working memory…
In performing an experiment like this one on man attention car it house is boy critically hat important shoe that candy the man material car that house is boy being hat read shoe by candy the man subject car for house the boy relevant hat task shoe be candy cohesive man and car grammatically house correct boy but hat without shoe either candy being man so car easy house that boy full hat attention shoe is candy not man required car in house order boy to hat read shoe nor too difficult.
YELLOW BLUE ORANGE BLACK RED GREEN PURPLE YELLOW RED ORANGE GREEN BLACK BLUE RED PURPLE GREEN BLUE ORANGE
The Cocktail Party Effect: The brain can pay conscious attention to only one train of thought at a time. The limitations of working memory…
What about multitasking? Toggling (task-switching) Paying “continuous partial attention” Quality decreases on both (or all) tasks attempted Time to complete tasks increases when attempting to multitask
Clarify with your tablemates what you’ve just learned about multitasking… and working memory in the adolescent brain. Topics Menu How might this information influence your work with students?
What do we know about emotional development in the adolescent brain? www.positscience.com 2010 Posit Science
The Limbic System… The brain’s emotional center… more primitive… more powerful… develops throughout childhood… is shaped by nature and by nurture Google image source: http://symptomresearch.nih.gov/chapter_23/images/fig81v2.gifhttp://symptomresearch.nih.gov/chapter_23/images/fig81v2.gif
Incoming Signal Amygdala Thalamus Neocortex NOT
Adolescent Brain Adult Brain FEAR ANGER SHOCK SURPRISE
Clarify with your tablemates what you’ve just learned about emotional development in the adolescent brain. Topics Menu How might this information help you in developing relationships with your adolescent learners?
What do we know about fundamental differences… due to society’s influence? www.positscience.com 2010 Posit Science
Fundamental Differences The Adolescent Brain Effects of TV & video games Exposure to violence through media and video games Immediacy- fast-paced world
Dendritic branching New connections Neural Plasticity: The brain’s ability to change its structure… based on environment & experience.
Clarify with your tablemates what you’ve just learned about society’s influence on brain development. Topics Menu What implications does this information have for the teaching profession?
is the act of making and strengthening connections between neurons… LEARNING…
…and adolescence is a critical window of opportunity for this “sculpting” of brains!
Six Kinds of Sensory Input BEING THERE IMMERSION HANDS-ON (The Real Thing) HANDS-ON (Representational Items) 2 ND HAND SYMBOLIC E=MC 2 + + ! “ ” = # $
Characteristics of Effective Instruction S tudent-Centered Classrooms T eaching for Understanding A ssessment FOR Learning R igorous and Relevant Curriculum T eaching for Learner Differences
Additional Resources on Adolescents and Sleep Teen sleep: Why is Your Teen so Tired? Teen sleep: Why is Your Teen so Tired? (Mayo Clinic Tween and Teen Health) Sleep and Teens: Biology and Behavior Sleep and Teens: Biology and Behavior (National Sleep Foundation) Adolescents and Sleep (PBS Frontline) Adolescents and Sleep Image Source: iCLIPART for Schools