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 What effects did Morgan Spurlock’s lifestyle have on his experiment?  If you were to re-run the test, what things would you do differently? Why?

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Presentation on theme: " What effects did Morgan Spurlock’s lifestyle have on his experiment?  If you were to re-run the test, what things would you do differently? Why?"— Presentation transcript:

1  What effects did Morgan Spurlock’s lifestyle have on his experiment?  If you were to re-run the test, what things would you do differently? Why?

2 Page #2 of notebook

3 Vocab Term  Definition  Other important things about the topic (picture)

4  Nervous System: The body’s electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells

5 Central Nervous System:  Brain and Spinal Cord

6 Peripheral Nervous System:  Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body  Anything not the brain/spinal cord

7 Sensory Neurons:  Nerves that carry messages from the body’s tissue and sensory receptors inward towards the brain Motor Neurons:  Nerves that carry instructions from the CNS to the body’s muscles

8 SensoryMotor

9 Neuron = Nerve cell

10  Neuron = nerve cell  Job: To send information throughout the Nervous System

11 Dendrites

12 Dendrites:  Neuron’s bushy, branching extensions that receive messages from other neurons  Dendrites “Listen”  Mean ‘tree-like’


14 Dendrites Cell Body Nucleus

15  …Body of the cell; where the Nucleus is  Information is collected and determined whether or not to be sent down the axon

16 Dendrites Axon Axon terminal Cell Body Nucleus

17 Axon  The neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons  Two parts: Axon and Axon Terminals  Axons ‘talks’ through process called synapse (we’ll discuss that later)

18 1 2 3 4

19  9OU

20 Dendrites Axon Axon terminal Cell Body Nucleus Myelin Sheath Node of Ranvier

21 Myelin Sheath  Fatty tissue layer encasing the axons of some neurons  Enables greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one s to the next  Node of Ranvier: Space in between the myelin sheaths


23  Over time, covering gets damaged; causes neural transmission speed to decrease  Multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's

24 Page #3 of notebook

25  Neurons send information across body  Dendrites listen/receive information  Axon talk/send information ACTION POTENTIAL IS THE PROCESS OF TELLING THE AXON TERMINALS TO SEND INFORMATION!!!!!!!!

26 Action Potential:  Brief electrical charge that travels down the neuron’s axon

27 Receive Information Send Information

28 1. Resting Potential  Inside of cell has negative charge (~70mV)  Potassium (K) on inside; Sodium (Na) on outside  Cell is ready to jump into action!


30 2. Na+ Doors Open  Na+ channels open; Na+ ions from the outside enter the cell  Cell becomes more positive; will it reach the action threshold?!?


32 3. Depolarization  As Na+ is coming in, K+ doors open up; K+ ions from the inside leave the cell  Cell’s charge begins to level out (becoming more positive)


34 4. Action Potential Climax  Na+ channels close; no more Na+ ions can enter cell  Note: K+ ions are still leaving; what is that going to do to the electrical charge of the cell?


36 5. Repolarization  K+ ions continue to leave the cell  Cell is returning to a “resting level” stage


38 6. Hyperpolarization  K+ doors finally close; more K+ outside than Na+ inside  Result: Cell body is too negative; cell adjusts to reach resting potential once more.


40 Back to resting potential  The system is ready to go again!


42 Page #4 in notebook

43 Does the process of action potential send messages to other neurons? If so, how? If not, what does it do then?

44  What are the parts of the neuron? What does each part do?  Action potential is getting messages from one end of neuron to the other

45  Like a wave: Electrical charge of cell goes up and down  That up and down of charge pushes the message down axon

46  Now that the information is at the axon, it needs to be sent to another neuron Synapse:  The Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

47  Each row will have 1 dendrite, 1 axon terminal; everyone else is in the axon  Goal: to send down the most messages down the neuron  Dendrite receives message from Mr. D  Axon show the processes in the action potential  Axon terminal shoots message into bin

48 Page #5 of notebook Yesterday we showed how synapse worked and how sometimes synapse is blocked. Using that information, how does Tylenol work with neurons?

49 old-epilepsy-drug-yields-treatment-clue

50  Messages travel through the nervous system; this system is created by neurons  In the neuron: dendrites listen, axon terminals talk  Action Potential = message travels from dendrite to axon (SAME NEURON)  Synapse = messages travels from one neuron to the other (OTHER NEURON)

51  Four Lobes  Frontal  Parietal (Par-riot-al)  Occipital (Awk-sip-it-al)  Temporal  Each lobe has a specific function; neuron sends different messages to each

52  Color Brain before cutting  Frontal: Blue  Parietal: Green  Occipital: Orange  Temporal: Pink  Page 3: Brown  BE CAREFUL HOW YOU CUT; YOU DON’T WANT TO RUIN YOUR BRAIN!

53 Page #5 of notebook (continued) Finish this sentence: “The brain is like a _______.” Tell me why compared the brain in that way. Be creative.

54 Side 1:  What lobe do you have?  What does that lobe control?  Where in the brain is it located? Side 2:  Specifics about your case study OR  What is going on in the disease?

55 Page #5 of notebook (continued) What are the four lobes and their functions?

56 Functions  Hearing  Understanding Language  Memory

57 Functions  Perceives visual information  Sight, sights, and more sight  Color blindness would start here

58 Functions:  Received messages from senses  Self-location  Self-Orientation  Sensory cortex

59 Functions:  Consciousness and Personality  Controls mood and emotional responses  Judgments we make throughout day  LAST PART OF BRAIN TO DEVELOP

60 Phineas Gage  Railroad rod went through his face, damaging frontal lobe  Before: Soft-spoken  After: Irritable, profane, and dishonest

61  PART OF FRONTAL LOBE Motor Cortex  Area that controls voluntary movements  Electrical stimulus causes body to move

62 u0ag2uo

63 Sensory Cortex  Area in front of the parietal lobe that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations  Places that are more sensitive (lips) are have a larger area on Sensory Cortex


65 Page #5 of notebook (continued) Write the following sentence WITH YOUR LEAST DOMINANT HAND: “The lazy dog jumped over the quick brown fox.”

66 Recap:  What does the motor cortex do?  What does the sensory cortex do?  What do you think would happen to both cortexes after an injury to a limb?

67 Plasticity:  The brain’s ability to modify itself after damage DlLD97CLM

68  Which characteristics define the left hemisphere? Which characteristics define the right hemisphere?  What jobs would work best for a left-brained person? What jobs would work best for a right?

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