Presentation on theme: " What effects did Morgan Spurlock’s lifestyle have on his experiment? If you were to re-run the test, what things would you do differently? Why?"— Presentation transcript:
What effects did Morgan Spurlock’s lifestyle have on his experiment? If you were to re-run the test, what things would you do differently? Why?
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Vocab Term Definition Other important things about the topic (picture)
Nervous System: The body’s electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells
Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System: Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body Anything not the brain/spinal cord
Sensory Neurons: Nerves that carry messages from the body’s tissue and sensory receptors inward towards the brain Motor Neurons: Nerves that carry instructions from the CNS to the body’s muscles
Neuron = Nerve cell
Neuron = nerve cell Job: To send information throughout the Nervous System
Dendrites: Neuron’s bushy, branching extensions that receive messages from other neurons Dendrites “Listen” Mean ‘tree-like’
Dendrites Cell Body Nucleus
…Body of the cell; where the Nucleus is Information is collected and determined whether or not to be sent down the axon
Dendrites Axon Axon terminal Cell Body Nucleus
Axon The neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons Two parts: Axon and Axon Terminals Axons ‘talks’ through process called synapse (we’ll discuss that later)
Dendrites Axon Axon terminal Cell Body Nucleus Myelin Sheath Node of Ranvier
Myelin Sheath Fatty tissue layer encasing the axons of some neurons Enables greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one s to the next Node of Ranvier: Space in between the myelin sheaths
Over time, covering gets damaged; causes neural transmission speed to decrease Multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's
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Neurons send information across body Dendrites listen/receive information Axon talk/send information ACTION POTENTIAL IS THE PROCESS OF TELLING THE AXON TERMINALS TO SEND INFORMATION!!!!!!!!
Action Potential: Brief electrical charge that travels down the neuron’s axon
Receive Information Send Information
1. Resting Potential Inside of cell has negative charge (~70mV) Potassium (K) on inside; Sodium (Na) on outside Cell is ready to jump into action!
2. Na+ Doors Open Na+ channels open; Na+ ions from the outside enter the cell Cell becomes more positive; will it reach the action threshold?!?
3. Depolarization As Na+ is coming in, K+ doors open up; K+ ions from the inside leave the cell Cell’s charge begins to level out (becoming more positive)
4. Action Potential Climax Na+ channels close; no more Na+ ions can enter cell Note: K+ ions are still leaving; what is that going to do to the electrical charge of the cell?
5. Repolarization K+ ions continue to leave the cell Cell is returning to a “resting level” stage
6. Hyperpolarization K+ doors finally close; more K+ outside than Na+ inside Result: Cell body is too negative; cell adjusts to reach resting potential once more.
Back to resting potential The system is ready to go again!
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Does the process of action potential send messages to other neurons? If so, how? If not, what does it do then?
What are the parts of the neuron? What does each part do? Action potential is getting messages from one end of neuron to the other
Like a wave: Electrical charge of cell goes up and down That up and down of charge pushes the message down axon
Now that the information is at the axon, it needs to be sent to another neuron Synapse: The Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Each row will have 1 dendrite, 1 axon terminal; everyone else is in the axon Goal: to send down the most messages down the neuron Dendrite receives message from Mr. D Axon show the processes in the action potential Axon terminal shoots message into bin
Page #5 of notebook Yesterday we showed how synapse worked and how sometimes synapse is blocked. Using that information, how does Tylenol work with neurons?
Messages travel through the nervous system; this system is created by neurons In the neuron: dendrites listen, axon terminals talk Action Potential = message travels from dendrite to axon (SAME NEURON) Synapse = messages travels from one neuron to the other (OTHER NEURON)
Four Lobes Frontal Parietal (Par-riot-al) Occipital (Awk-sip-it-al) Temporal Each lobe has a specific function; neuron sends different messages to each
Color Brain before cutting Frontal: Blue Parietal: Green Occipital: Orange Temporal: Pink Page 3: Brown BE CAREFUL HOW YOU CUT; YOU DON’T WANT TO RUIN YOUR BRAIN!
Page #5 of notebook (continued) Finish this sentence: “The brain is like a _______.” Tell me why compared the brain in that way. Be creative.
Side 1: What lobe do you have? What does that lobe control? Where in the brain is it located? Side 2: Specifics about your case study OR What is going on in the disease?
Page #5 of notebook (continued) What are the four lobes and their functions?
Functions Hearing Understanding Language Memory
Functions Perceives visual information Sight, sights, and more sight Color blindness would start here
Functions: Received messages from senses Self-location Self-Orientation Sensory cortex
Functions: Consciousness and Personality Controls mood and emotional responses Judgments we make throughout day LAST PART OF BRAIN TO DEVELOP
Phineas Gage Railroad rod went through his face, damaging frontal lobe Before: Soft-spoken After: Irritable, profane, and dishonest
PART OF FRONTAL LOBE Motor Cortex Area that controls voluntary movements Electrical stimulus causes body to move
Sensory Cortex Area in front of the parietal lobe that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations Places that are more sensitive (lips) are have a larger area on Sensory Cortex
Page #5 of notebook (continued) Write the following sentence WITH YOUR LEAST DOMINANT HAND: “The lazy dog jumped over the quick brown fox.”
Recap: What does the motor cortex do? What does the sensory cortex do? What do you think would happen to both cortexes after an injury to a limb?
Plasticity: The brain’s ability to modify itself after damage DlLD97CLM
Which characteristics define the left hemisphere? Which characteristics define the right hemisphere? What jobs would work best for a left-brained person? What jobs would work best for a right?