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Endocrine Control Chapter 26. Endocrine System Major Components Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Pineal gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Thymus gland.

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Presentation on theme: "Endocrine Control Chapter 26. Endocrine System Major Components Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Pineal gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Thymus gland."— Presentation transcript:

1 Endocrine Control Chapter 26

2 Endocrine System Major Components Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Pineal gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Thymus gland Adrenal glands Pancreatic islets Ovaries Testes

3 hypothalamus (part of the brain) pituitary gland, anterior lobe pituitary gland, posterior lobe adrenal gland (one pair) cortex medulla ovaries (one pair of female gonads) testes (one pair of male gonads) pineal gland thyroid gland parathyroid glands (four) thymus gland pancreatic islets Fig. 26-1, p.449

4 Hormones Secreted by endocrine glands, endocrine cells, and hypothalmic neurons Travel through bloodstream to target cells Bind to receptors on target cells

5 Other Signaling Molecules Neurotransmitters – From axon endings of neurons Local signaling molecules – Prostaglandins – Nitric oxide (NO)

6 Three-Step Hormonal Action Activation of a receptor as it binds the hormone Transduction of signal into a molecular form that can work inside the cell Functional response of target cell signal reception signal transduction cellular response

7 Responses to Hormones Vary Different hormones activate different responses in the same target cell Not all types of cells respond to a particular hormone

8 Main Hormone Types Steroid hormones – Lipids derived from cholesterol Peptide hormones – A few amino acids Amine hormones – Modified amino acids Protein hormones – Longer amino acid chains

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10 Receptors Intracellular – Steroid hormones – Diffuse across plasma membrane Plasma membrane – Peptides and proteins – Too big or polar to diffuse – Second messengers (cAMP)

11 Steroid Hormones receptor hormone-receptor complex gene product hormone Most diffuse across the plasma membrane and bind to a receptor Hormone-receptor complex acts in nucleus to inhibit or enhance transcription

12 A steroid hormone molecule moves from the blood into interstitial fluid that bathes a target cell. Being a lipid- soluable molecule, the steroid hormone diffuses across the target cell’s plasma membrane. The mRNA transcript moves from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. There it becomes translated into a gene product that is required for the response to the hormone signal. gene product The hormone diffuses through the cytoplasm, then on through the nuclear envelope. Inside the nucleus, it will bind with a receptor molecule. receptor hormone-receptor complex Now the hormone- receptor complex triggers transcription of gene regions in the DNA. Fig. 26-2a, p.451 1 3 2 4 5

13 Peptide Hormone Hormone binds to a receptor at cell surface Binding triggers a change in activity of enzymes inside the cell glucagon receptor cyclic AMP+ P i ATP The cAMP activates protein kinase A. glucagon Protein kinase A converts phosphorylase kinase to active form and inhibits an enzyme required for glucagon synthesis.

14 ATP +Pi The cAMP now activates protein kinase A. A glucagon molecule diffuses from blood into the interstitial fluid that bathes the plasma membrane of a liver cell. unoccupied glucagon receptor at target cell’s plasma membrane Protein kinase A also inhibits an enzyme required for synthesis of glycogen. Glucagon binds with the receptor, and the binding activates adenylate cyclase. This enzyme catalyzes the formation of cAMP inside the target cell. Protein kinase A converts phosphorylase kinase to active form. This enzyme activates a different enzyme, which breaks down glycogen to its glucose monomers. Fig. 26-2b, p.451 1 3 5 4 2 cyclic AMP

15 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Glands in brain – Structurally and functionally linked Master integrating center for endocrine and nervous systems Hypothalmic neurons produce – Neurotransmitters – Hormones

16 Pituitary Gland Pea-sized gland at base of hypothalamus Two lobes – Posterior lobe stores and releases hormones made in hypothalamus – Anterior lobe produces and secretes its own hormones

17 Posterior Pituitary Secretions Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Oxytocin (OCT) cell body in hypothalamus axons to the general circulation

18 Cell bodies in hypothalamus synthesize ADH or oxytocin ADH, oxytocin move down axons, accumulate in axon endings Small vessels carry hormones to general circulation Action potentials cause release of hormones, which capillaries pick up cell body axon capillaries Stepped Art Fig. 26-3, p.452

19 muscles in uterus wall mammary glands nephrons in kidneys ADH oxytocin Cell bodies of secretory neurons in hypothalamus synthesize ADH or oxytocin. The ADH or oxytocin moves downward inside the axons of the secretory neurons and accumulates in the axon endings. Action potentials trigger the release of these hormones, which enter blood capillaries in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Small blood vessels deliver the hormone molecules to the general circulation. Fig. 26-3, p.452 a b c d

20 Anterior Pituitary Responds to hypothalmic signals Releasers – Stimulate secretion of pituitary hormones Inhibitors – Inhibit release of pituitary hormones

21 Anterior Pituitary Secretions Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Prolactin (PRL) Growth hormone (GH)

22 thyroid gland ACTHTSHFSHLHPRL GH (STH) testes in males ovaries in females mammary glands Hormones secreted from anterior lobe cells enter small blood vessels that lead to the general circulation. Cell bodies of different secretory neurons in the hypothalamus secrete releasing and inhibiting hormones. The hormones are picked up by a capillary bed at the base of the hypothalamus. Bloodstream delivers hormones to a second capillary bed in anterior lobe of pituitary. Molecules of the releasing or inhibiting hormone diffuse out of capillaries and act on endocrine cells in the anterior lobe. most cells (growth- promoting effects) Fig. 26-4, p.453 a e b c d adrenal glands

23 Abnormal Pituitary Output Pituitary gigantism Pituitary dwarfism Acromegaly

24 Abnormal Pituitary Outputs

25 Thymus, Thyroid and Parathyroid Thymus – Immune function Thyroid – Development and metabolism – Regulated by feedback loops Parathyroid – Calcium levels

26 Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary Thyroid Gland Response Stimulus Blood level of thyroid hormone falls below a set point. + TRH TSH Thyroid hormone is secreted Rise in the blood level of thyroid hormone inhibits secretion of TRH and TSH. – – Negative Feedback and Thyroid Function

27 Thyroid Function Requires mineral iodine – Deficiency causes goiter

28 Parathyroid and Calcium Parathyroid hormone (PTH) – regulates blood calcium – secreted when calcium levels drop – causes bone cells to release calcium from bone tissue – stimulates calcium reabsorption by kidneys

29 Calcium and Vitamin D Without vitamin D, not enough calcium is absorbed Low blood calcium causes oversecretion of PTH – Breaks down existing bone – Causes rickets

30 Adrenal Glands and Stress Adrenal cortex secretes cortisol and aldosterone Negative feedback maintains blood cortisol levels

31 Hypothalamus Stimulus Response Anterior Pituitary Adrenal Cortex Cortisol is secreted, with these effects: adrenal cortex adrenal medulla Blood level of cortisol falls below a set point kidney Both the hypothalamus and pituitary detect rise in blood level of cortisol and slow its further secretion. CRH ACTH + – Cellular uptake of glucose from blood slows in many tissues, especially muscles (not the brain). Proteins degraded in many tissues, especially in muscles. The free amino acids are converted to glucose and used in the assembly or repair of cell structures. Fats in adipose tissue degraded to fatty acids that enter blood as an alternative energy source, indirectly conserving glucose for the brain. – a b f c d e Negative Feedback Control of Adrenal Glands

32 Stress Response Stress can cause nervous system to override feedback loop Cortisol levels rise above normal, suppress inflammation Persistent high cortisol levels may harm health

33 The Pancreas and Glucose Homeostasis stomach pancreas small intestine

34 Pancreatic Hormones and Glucose Balance Glucagon – Secreted by alpha cells in islets – Raises blood glucose level Insulin – Secreted by beta cells in islets – Lowers blood glucose level Somatostatin – Secreted by delta cells – Blocks insulin and glucagon secretion

35 Fig. 26-9, p.456 Stimulus alpha cells glucagon LIVER insulin beta cells Increase in blood glucose + PANCREAS – Decrease in blood glucose alpha cells glucagon insulin beta cells + – MUSCLEFAT CELLS Body cells, especially in muscle and adipose tissue, take up and use more glucose. Cells in skeletal muscle and liver store glucose in the form of glycogen. Response Decrease in blood glucose Cells in liver break down glycogen faster. The released glucose monomers enter blood. Response Increase in blood glucose a f gh i j e bc d

36 Diabetes Mellitus Excess glucose accumulates Type 1 Autoimmune disease Usually appears in childhood Insulin injections Type 2 Target cells don’t respond Usually appears in adults Diet, drugs

37 Table 26-2, p.457

38 Sex Hormones Testes and ovaries synthesize the same sex hormones in different amounts – Estrogens – Progesterone – Testosterone Influence sexual traits

39 The Pineal Gland Photosensitive gland embedded in brain In absence of light, secretes melatonin Influences seasonal behaviors Affects human biological clock – sleep-wake cycles – seasonal affective disorder

40 Deformed Frogs Something in water triggers deformities Problem thyroid function? Tadpoles from “hotspots” developed normally when given extra thyroid hormones UV, parasites also play a role

41 Effects of Pollution on Frogs

42 Table 26-3, p.459


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