Presentation on theme: "Marc Freiman Wednesday Pulmonary Conference August 7, 2013 Long Case."— Presentation transcript:
Marc Freiman Wednesday Pulmonary Conference August 7, 2013 Long Case
HPI 50 yo woman from the Dominican republic presenting to pulmonary clinic for cough 4-5 years Symptoms may have started after a cold ? Worse in the summer, no temporal relation to night/day Dry, non-productive DOE 2-3 city blocks, 2 flights of stairs ROS - Denies HA, sinus congestion, heartburn, reflux. Denies chest pain, palpitations, orthopnea, PND or edema
PMHx/Soc Hx Vitiligo Denies childhood asthma From DR 3 years ago Worked in paper shredding factory for 1 yr Currently works in retail Never smoker No EtOH, illicits
Physical exam Afeb P 95 130/84 96% RA; BMI 30 (150lbs, 5’) General: comfortable Clear, no wheeze. ? Crackles at bases bilaterally Neck: supple, no masses, neck nodes not palpable CV: RRR No m/r/g No cervical LAD, neck supple No desaturation on exertion
CT read LUNGS: There are multiple nodules in both lungs measuring up to 5 mm. Mosaic attenuation is seen in both lungs most prominent in the lower lobes suggestive of small airways or small vessel disease.
Overview of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (BP-NET) 4 types Typical carcinoid Atypical Carcinoid Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma
Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Endocrine Cell Hyperplasia (DIPNECH) Preneoplastic Pulmonary tumorlets (<5mm) Had been known to occur in: ILD Bronchiolitis obliterans Patients living at high altitudes
Purpose of the neuroendocrine cell in the lung? Unknown Arises from Kulchitsky cell Thought to be involved as ‘airway sensors’ Mediate airway tone, pulmonary circulation, and control of breathing. Act as both chemo and mechanoreceptors Also likely involved in development of the lung
Clinical course – AJRCCM 2011 92% of patients had symptoms Cough, dyspnea, wheezing Symptoms lasted between days to years – average 8.6 years Widely variable course has been described Not clear exactly why some people deteriorate – known to produce bombesin and fibrinogenic cytokines 41% (7) stable without clinical deterioration Oral predniosne given to 2 of these patients 24% (4) clinically declined and didn’t improve 35% (6) declined but showed improvement clinically Oral prednisone used in addition to bronchodilators in 4 of 6 No deaths 1 patient with asthma history who died of sepsis found to have DIPNECH on autopsy
Treatment No formal evaluations of a treatment algorithm are available Resection of dominant lesion Oral/inh steroids w bronchodilators Chemotherapy Surgical lung resection Presence of lymph nodes has not been associated w worse outcome Lung transplantation (1pt, single lung, followed for 2 yrs) Observation ?Somatoastatin analogues
Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy (OctreoScan) Tumors often express somatostatin Labeled somatostatin analog (octreotide) Previously thought to be gold standard for diagnosis Sn approx 80-90% Somatostatin uptake may correspond to treatment response. Somatostatin targeted PET scan Sn as high as 100%, identified more lesions than SRS or CT
Patient’s octreotide scan No uptake in the lungs Increased uptake in the cecum Negative colonoscopy
Further investigation Predisposing factors? ? Hormonal component Tend to be middle-aged females Unclear if race/ethnicity plays a role Incidence? Treatment algorithm?
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