2Receptors & Sensations Five types of receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsNociceptorsThermoreceptorsPhotoreceptors
3Receptors.1. Must be a stimulus 2. Must detect the stimulus and create action potential 3. Action potential must be conductive to the central nervous system 4. Impulse must be translated into information 5. Must be interpreted in the CNS into an awareness or perception of the stimulus
4General Senses (Somatic Senses) - are those that are found throughout the body* Touch* Pressure* Proprioception* Temperature* Pain
5*Sense of position and orientation* Touch & PressureProprioceptionThree of the receptors involved: -Free never endings -Meissner’s corpuscles -Pacinian corpuscles*Sense of position and orientation*-Golgi organs found at the junction of a tendon with a muscle spindles located in the skeletal muscles are important mechanoreceptors for proprioception
6TemperaturePain-Thermoceptors are located immediately under the skin and are widely distributed throughout the body-10x more cold receptors in a given area than heat receptors-initiated by nociceptors which are free nerve endings-No pain receptors in the nerve tissue of the brain
7*four different taste sensations* Gustatory Sense-one of the special senses-(Taste buds) are localized in the mouth region, primarily on the surface of the tongue-Receptors belong in the Chemoreceptor category*four different taste sensations*SaltySweetSourBitter
8-stimulated by chemicals dissolved in liquids Olfactory System- bipolar neurons surrounded by supporting columnar epithelial cells in the olfactory epithelium of nasal cavity-Chemoreceptors-stimulated by chemicals dissolved in liquids- part of what we “taste” is really smell, part of what we “smell” is what we taste
9* Protective features and Accessory structures of the Eye* Visual Sense- most consider vision to be one of the most important senses-photoreceptors* Protective features and Accessory structures of the Eye*-Eyebrows-orbicularis oculi-elevator palpebrae superioris-Eyelashes-sebaceous glands-stye-lacrimal apparatus, gland, ducts, sac-nasolacrimal duct
10*structure of the Eyeball* Visual sense*structure of the Eyeball*
11Auditory Sense-the ear is the organ of hearing (auditory or acoustic organ)-mechanoreceptors-divided into the external, inner, and outer ear*external ear*auricleExternal auditory meatusEnds at the tympanic membrane*middle ear*MallausIncusStapes*inner ear*Bony labyrinthVestibuleSemicircular canalscochlea
12Auditory Sense *physiology of hearing* -initiation of impulses -pitch and loudness-auditory pathway
13Sense of equilibrium*a combination of two different senses*-static equilibrium : occurs when the head is motionless or moving in a straight line-dynamic equilibrium: is in response to rotational or angular movementThe receptors for static equilibrium are located in the bony vestibule of the inner ear – this nerveThis nerve transmits the impulses to the cerebral cortex
14Quiz 1. Which of the following is NOT a general sense? A. Taste B. TouchC. PressureD. Pain
15AnswerD. Pain Pain is not a general sense because the general senses are touch, taste, smell, site, and sound. The organs that are related to these senses include the skin, tongue, nose, eyes, and ears. Pain is not a sense, it is something that can be felt on these organs using these senses.
16Quiz (Continued)2. Damage to which cranial nerve will interfere with the sense of taste from the tip of the tongue?
17AnswerThere are three cranial nerves involved in taste, this includes the Facial Nerve, the Glossopharyngeal Nerve, and the Vagus Nerve. These nerves all carry information from the back of the tongue or the front of the tongue.
18Quiz (Continued) a. Temporal Lobe b. Frontal Lobe c. Occipital Lobe 3. In what lobe of the brain is the sense of smell interpreted?a. Temporal Lobeb. Frontal Lobec. Occipital Lobed. Parietal Lobe
19AnswerA. Temporal LobeThe lobe of the brain that controls smell is the temporal lobe. The temporal lobe receives impulses from the olfactory bulb at the top of the nasal sinus, and then it interprets it as smell.
20Quiz (continued)4. Dr. Ike Ular, a ophthalmologist, suspects that his patient might have glaucoma. One of the tests he performed was to pleasure the pressure in the anterior cavity of the eye. The fluid in this cavity is… a. endolymph b. vitreous humor c. aqueous humor d. perilymph
21AnswerC. Aqueous HumorThe fluid in this cavity is called “Aqueous Humor”. This is the correct answer because Aqueous Humor is a transparent, gelatinous fluid similar to plasma; it fills the space between the cornea and the iris – in the anterior chamber. Since it is filled in the anterior chamber, this is the correct answer because the doctor involved in the question performed his test in the anterior.