2Structure of the Endocrine System All the cells in your body respond to messages sent by three of your major body systemsNervous SystemImmune SystemEndocrine SystemEndocrine glands are ductless or tubeless organs or groups of cells that secret hormones directly into the blood streamHormones are chemical substances that are produced in glands and help regulate many of your body’s functionSecreted by the endocrine glands and are carried by the blood to their destination in the bodyInfluence physical and mental responses
3Structure of the Endocrine System Pituitary GlandRegulates and controls the activities of all other endocrine glandsHas 3 sectionsAnterior lobeProduction of sex hormonesIntermediate lobeDarkening of the skin by stimulating skin pigmentPosterior lobeSecreting ADHAdrenal GlandRegulates the body’s salt and water balanceHelps the body recover from stress and response to emergenciesThere are two partsAdrenal cortexAdrenal medulla
4Problems of the Endocrine System Diabetes MellitusA disorder in which the pancreas produces too little or no insulin, resulting in high blood glucose levelsGraves’s Diseasealso called hyperthyroidism, a disorder in which an overactive and enlarged thyroid glands produces excessive amounts of thyroxin.Cushing’s diseaseResults from the overproduction of adrenal hormones.Symptoms include round face, humped upper back, thin and easily bruised skin, and fragile bonesGrowth disorderCaused by abnormal amounts of growth hormone
6Structure and Function of the Male Reproductive System The reproductive system is the system of organs involved in producing offspringThe two main functions of the male reproductive systems are the production and storage of sperm and the transfer of sperm to the female’s body during sexual intercourse.Hormones produced in the pituitary gland stimulate the production of testosterone, the male sex hormoneTestosterone initiates physical changes that signal maturity, including broadening of the shoulders, development of muscles and facial hair and other body hair, and deepening of the voice.Testosterone also controls the production of the sperm
7Structure and Function of the Male Reproductive System TestesTwo small glands that produce spermScrotumAn external sacPenisTube-shaped organ that extends from the trunk of the body just above the testesSemenThick fluid containing sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive systemFertilizationThe joining of a male sperm cell and a female egg cellInternal Male Reproductive organsSee pg. 470 figure 18.2
8Care of the Male Reproductive System Get regular check upBathe regularlyWear protective equipmentPerform regular self-examinationsPractice abstinence
9STDs (Sexually Transmitted Disease) STDs that can affect the male reproductive system areChlamydiaGonorrheaSyphilisGenital HerpesThe primary means of transmission of all STDs is sexual activity
10Problems of the Male Reproductive System Inguinal HerniaA separation of tissue that allows part of the intestine to push the abdominal wall near the top of the scrotumTreatment includes surgerySterilityThe inability to reproduceCan result from environmental hazards, including exposure to X rays and other radiations, toxic chemicals, and lead. Hormonal imbalance, certain medications, and use of drugs, including anabolic steroids.
11Problems of the Male Reproductive System Testicular CancerCan affect males of any age but occurs most often in males between the ages of 14 and 40Factors that increase the risk of developing TC are undescended testicle, abnormal testicular development, and family history of testicular cancer.Symptoms include painless lump or swelling. Pain or discomfort in testicle or scrotumProstate GlandCan become enlarged as a result of an infection, a tumor, or age-related problems.An enlarged gland presses against the urethra, resulting in frequent or difficult urination. Symptoms may indicate prostate cancerTreatment includes radiation, hormone therapy, and surgery.
13Structure and Function of the Female Reproductive System The functions of the female reproduction system includes producing female sex hormones and storing female reproductive cells called ova.Uterusa hollow, muscular pear-shaped organ inside a female’s bodyOvariesThe female sex glands that store the ova and produce female sex hormonesOvulationthe process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each monthFallopian tubesA pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw on the ovumVaginaA muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the bodyCervixThe opening to the uterusMenstruationThe shedding of the uterine lining
14Care of the Female Reproductive System Females should care for her reproductive system byBathing regularlyFeminine deodorant sprays and douches are not necessary and may cause irritation or infection in the sensitive tissues around the vaginaPractice abstinence from sexual activityBreast Self-ExamBreast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of the death, after lung cancer, for women.Females should begin examining their breasts right after their menstrual cycle, once a month
15Problems of the Female Reproductive System Menstrual CrampsCan be relieved with light exercise or applying a heating pad to the abdominal areaPremenstrual syndrome (PMS)Disorder caused by hormonal changesSymptoms include nervous tension, anxiety, irritability, bloating, weight gain, depression, mood swings, and fatigueToxic shock syndromeBacterial infection that affects the immune system and the liver, and can be fatal
16Problems related to Infertility EndometriosisPainful, chronic disease occurs when tissue that lines the uterus migrates and grows in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the uterus, or the lining of the pelvic cavity.EndometriumThe thickened lining of the uterusPelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)An infection of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the surrounding areas of the pelvisMost often caused by STDsSTDsThe most common causes of infertility and other disorders of the reproductive system.
17Other Female Reproductive Disorders VaginitisMost common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age, and is often accompanied by discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burningBlocked fallopian tubesThe leading cause of infertility, may result from PID, abdominal surgery, STDs, or endometriosisOvarian cystsFluid filled sacs in the ovary wallCervical, uterine, and ovarian cancerRegular check ups and pelvic exams are important for early detection and treatment