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Chapter 18 Lesson 1.

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1 Chapter 18 Lesson 1

2 Structure of the Endocrine System
All the cells in your body respond to messages sent by three of your major body systems Nervous System Immune System Endocrine System Endocrine glands are ductless or tubeless organs or groups of cells that secret hormones directly into the blood stream Hormones are chemical substances that are produced in glands and help regulate many of your body’s function Secreted by the endocrine glands and are carried by the blood to their destination in the body Influence physical and mental responses

3 Structure of the Endocrine System
Pituitary Gland Regulates and controls the activities of all other endocrine glands Has 3 sections Anterior lobe Production of sex hormones Intermediate lobe Darkening of the skin by stimulating skin pigment Posterior lobe Secreting ADH Adrenal Gland Regulates the body’s salt and water balance Helps the body recover from stress and response to emergencies There are two parts Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla

4 Problems of the Endocrine System
Diabetes Mellitus A disorder in which the pancreas produces too little or no insulin, resulting in high blood glucose levels Graves’s Disease also called hyperthyroidism, a disorder in which an overactive and enlarged thyroid glands produces excessive amounts of thyroxin. Cushing’s disease Results from the overproduction of adrenal hormones. Symptoms include round face, humped upper back, thin and easily bruised skin, and fragile bones Growth disorder Caused by abnormal amounts of growth hormone

5 The Male Reproductive System
Lesson 2

6 Structure and Function of the Male Reproductive System
The reproductive system is the system of organs involved in producing offspring The two main functions of the male reproductive systems are the production and storage of sperm and the transfer of sperm to the female’s body during sexual intercourse. Hormones produced in the pituitary gland stimulate the production of testosterone, the male sex hormone Testosterone initiates physical changes that signal maturity, including broadening of the shoulders, development of muscles and facial hair and other body hair, and deepening of the voice. Testosterone also controls the production of the sperm

7 Structure and Function of the Male Reproductive System
Testes Two small glands that produce sperm Scrotum An external sac Penis Tube-shaped organ that extends from the trunk of the body just above the testes Semen Thick fluid containing sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive system Fertilization The joining of a male sperm cell and a female egg cell Internal Male Reproductive organs See pg. 470 figure 18.2

8 Care of the Male Reproductive System
Get regular check up Bathe regularly Wear protective equipment Perform regular self-examinations Practice abstinence

9 STDs (Sexually Transmitted Disease)
STDs that can affect the male reproductive system are Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Genital Herpes The primary means of transmission of all STDs is sexual activity

10 Problems of the Male Reproductive System
Inguinal Hernia A separation of tissue that allows part of the intestine to push the abdominal wall near the top of the scrotum Treatment includes surgery Sterility The inability to reproduce Can result from environmental hazards, including exposure to X rays and other radiations, toxic chemicals, and lead. Hormonal imbalance, certain medications, and use of drugs, including anabolic steroids.

11 Problems of the Male Reproductive System
Testicular Cancer Can affect males of any age but occurs most often in males between the ages of 14 and 40 Factors that increase the risk of developing TC are undescended testicle, abnormal testicular development, and family history of testicular cancer. Symptoms include painless lump or swelling. Pain or discomfort in testicle or scrotum Prostate Gland Can become enlarged as a result of an infection, a tumor, or age-related problems. An enlarged gland presses against the urethra, resulting in frequent or difficult urination. Symptoms may indicate prostate cancer Treatment includes radiation, hormone therapy, and surgery.

12 The Female Reproductive System
Lesson 3

13 Structure and Function of the Female Reproductive System
The functions of the female reproduction system includes producing female sex hormones and storing female reproductive cells called ova. Uterus a hollow, muscular pear-shaped organ inside a female’s body Ovaries The female sex glands that store the ova and produce female sex hormones Ovulation the process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each month Fallopian tubes A pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw on the ovum Vagina A muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body Cervix The opening to the uterus Menstruation The shedding of the uterine lining

14 Care of the Female Reproductive System
Females should care for her reproductive system by Bathing regularly Feminine deodorant sprays and douches are not necessary and may cause irritation or infection in the sensitive tissues around the vagina Practice abstinence from sexual activity Breast Self-Exam Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of the death, after lung cancer, for women. Females should begin examining their breasts right after their menstrual cycle, once a month

15 Problems of the Female Reproductive System
Menstrual Cramps Can be relieved with light exercise or applying a heating pad to the abdominal area Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Disorder caused by hormonal changes Symptoms include nervous tension, anxiety, irritability, bloating, weight gain, depression, mood swings, and fatigue Toxic shock syndrome Bacterial infection that affects the immune system and the liver, and can be fatal

16 Problems related to Infertility
Endometriosis Painful, chronic disease occurs when tissue that lines the uterus migrates and grows in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the uterus, or the lining of the pelvic cavity. Endometrium The thickened lining of the uterus Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) An infection of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the surrounding areas of the pelvis Most often caused by STDs STDs The most common causes of infertility and other disorders of the reproductive system.

17 Other Female Reproductive Disorders
Vaginitis Most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age, and is often accompanied by discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning Blocked fallopian tubes The leading cause of infertility, may result from PID, abdominal surgery, STDs, or endometriosis Ovarian cysts Fluid filled sacs in the ovary wall Cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer Regular check ups and pelvic exams are important for early detection and treatment

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