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Part 5 – Living on Land From fish to (terrestrial) tetrapod
“fishes”tetrapods The Transition
Challenges of terrestrial living
The players …..
† Shallow water, freshwater aquatic tetrapod (lobe-finned fish)
Icthyostega Internal choanae
Aquatic / terrestrial tetrapods
† Primitive aquatic tetrapods
† Primitive terrestrial tetrapods (on the way to amphibians)
2 terrestrial tetrapod groups
Amniotes (reptile/bird, mammal) (Lepospondyli) 1.
† Primitive amniotes (pre- reptile/bird, mammal) (Lepospondyli – husk vertebrae ) 1.
Temnospondyli 2. Amphibians + (many) extinct things
Temnospondyli 2. † Proto-Amphibians (split vertebrae)
2 terrestrial tetrapod groups
Tetrapods † aquatic tetrapods † semi-terrestrial tetrapods † Lepospondyli Amniotes † Temnospondyli Amphibians Terrestrial tetrapods
lobe-fin fish †early tetrapods Lepospondyli Amnoita Temnospondyli Class Amphibia † various dead ends aquatic terrestrial fish tetrapod
Some time scale 6 billion years
Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic 600 million years
Paleozoic Fish Events
Paleozoic Tetrapod events (early)
Paleozoic Tetrapod events (late)
Ordovician terrestrial habitats
Devonian terrestrial habitats
Carboniferous terrestrial habitats
Carboniferous millipede tracks
Meganeura Carboniferous dragonfly 75 cm wingspan
Permian – cooler and drier
Devonian – First tetrapods Panderichthys Tiktaalik Acanthostega Ichthyostega
Carboniferous – tetrapods diversify and move onto land Pederpes Loxomma Amphibamus Tuditanus
Permian – it all almost ends
Living on land
Pre-adaptations Lungs Limbs
Internal choanae Pre-adaptations
Support and Movement
Fish primitive (terrestrial) tetrapod Terrestrial tetrapods Vertebral innovations
Vertebral Column fishes, pre-terrestrial tetrapods
Vertebral Column terrestrial tetrapods
Terrestrial tetrapods zygapophyses
Early Tetrapods Terrestrial Aquatic
Fishes opercular bones present pectoral girdle skull connected *
Panderichthys Lobe-finned Fish Tiktaalik Basal tetrapod = “fish-o-pod” Opercular bones lost
Vantastega Skull / girdle connection lost
Tetrapods have necks
“fish” tetrapod “fish” tetrapod
Pelvic girdle “Fishes” No connection to vertebral column
Lobefin fish Primitive tetrapod no connection connection Pelvic girdle
Eryops Pectoral Pelvic
living amphibian pelvic girdle
Appendicular Skeleton lobe-fin fish aquatic tetrapod
Appendicular Skeleton early terrestrial tetrapod later terrestrial tetrapod
“fish” tetrapod “fish” tetrapod
How many digits?
Physiology and soft anatomy
Switching from gill breathing (with lungs) to lung breathing
“Fish” – gills with lungs Tetrapod – lungs with gills
Gill breathing – with lungs
lobe-fin fish †early tetrapods Lepospondyli Amnoita Temnospondyli Lissamphibia = Class Amphibia (s.s.) † various dead ends aquatic terrestrial fish tetrapod
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