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1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Human Biology Sylvia S. Mader Michael Windelspecht Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Human Biology Sylvia S. Mader Michael Windelspecht Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Human Biology Sylvia S. Mader Michael Windelspecht Chapter 13 Nervous System Lecture Outline Part 3

2 2 1.The brain: Cerebrum – The lobes Cerebrum – largest portion of the brain Divided into 4 lobes 1._______ lobe: primary motor area and conscious thought 2._________ lobe: primary auditory, smell, and speech area 3._________ lobe: primary somatosensory and taste area 4._________ lobe : primary visual area 13.2 The Central Nervous System

3 3 1.The brain: Cerebrum – The cerebral hemispheres Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal lobe Occipital lobe Parietal lobe auditory association area primary auditory area primary somatosensory area primary taste area general interpretation area primary motor area premotor area lateral sulcus central sulcus trunk arm hand face tongue leg motor speech (Broca’s) area prefrontal area anterior ventral primary olfactory area sensory speech (Wernicke’s) area Temporal lobe somatosensory association area posterior dorsal primary visual area visual association area Figure 13.9 The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The Central Nervous System

4 4 1.The brain: Cerebrum – The cerebral cortex Cerebral cortex – thin, outer layer of gray matter Primary motor area – _________ control of skeletal muscle Primary somatosensory area – for sensory information from skeletal muscle and skin Association areas – ___________ occurs here _______________ – perform higher level analytical functions including Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas, both involved in speech 13.2 The Central Nervous System

5 5 1.The brain: Cerebrum – The cerebral cortex Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. salivation vocalization mastication longitudinal fissure facial expression swallowing thumb, fingers, and hand forearm arm trunk pelvis thigh leg foot and toes lips upper face tongue and pharynx hand, fingers, and thumb forearm arm neck trunk pelvis thigh leg foot and toes genitals teeth and gums longitudinal fissure b. Primary somatosensory area a.Primary motor area Figure The primary motor and primary somatosensory areas of the brain The Central Nervous System

6 6 2. The brain: Diencephalon Includes the ______________ – helps maintain homeostasis (hunger, sleep, thirst, body temperature, and water balance) and controls pituitary gland Thalamus – 2 masses of gray matter that receive all sensory input except smell; involved in memory and emotions ____________ – secretes melatonin that controls our daily rhythms 13.2 The Central Nervous System

7 7 2. The brain: Diencephalon Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. skull meninges pituitary gland fourth ventricle spinal cord Cerebrum Diencephalon Cerebellum hypothalamus midbrain pons Brain stem a. Parts of brain b. Cerebral hemispheres lateral ventricle third ventricle pineal gland corpus callosum thalamus (surrounds the third ventricle) medulla oblongata Figure 13.8 The human brain The Central Nervous System

8 8 3. The brain: Cerebellum Receives and integrates sensory input from the eyes, ears, joints, and muscles about the current position of the body Functions _______________ _____________ voluntary movement Allows learning of new _____________ (i.e., playing the piano or hitting a baseball) 13.2 The Central Nervous System

9 9 4. The brain: The brain stem Includes __________ – relay station between the cerebrum and spinal cord or cerebellum; reflex center _______ – a bridge between cerebellum and the CNS; regulates breathing rate; reflex center for head movements ________________ – contains reflex centers for regulating breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure ________________ – major component of the reticular activating system (RAS) that regulates alertness 13.2 The Central Nervous System

10 10 The reticular formation Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. RAS radiates to cerebral cortex. thalamus reticular formation ascending sensory tracts (touch, pain, temperature) Figure The reticular formation of the brain The Central Nervous System

11 11 The limbic system It joins primitive emotions (i.e., fear, pleasure) with higher functions such as reasoning. The _____________ can cause strong emotional reactions to situations but conscious thought can override and direct our behavior. Includes Amygdala – imparts emotional overtones Hippocampus – important to _________ and ___________ 13.3 The Limbic System and Higher Mental Functions

12 12 The limbic system Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. amygdala hippocampus olfactory bulb olfactory tract hypothalamus corpus callosum thalamus Figure The regions of the brain associated with the limbic system The Limbic System and Higher Mental Functions

13 13 Learning – what happens when we recall and use past memories Memory – ability to hold a thought or to recall past events Short-term memory – retention of information for only a few minutes 13.3 The Limbic System and Higher Mental Functions Higher mental functions

14 14 Higher mental functions Long-term memory – retention of information for more than a few minutes and includes the following __________ memory – people and events __________ memory – numbers and words ______________ – performing skilled motor activities (i.e., riding a bike) Language – depends on __________ memory 13.3 The Limbic System and Higher Mental Functions

15 15 What parts of the brain are active in reading and speaking? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. primary auditory cortex visual cortex primary motor cortex 1. The word is seen in the visual cortex. 2. Information concerning the word is interpreted in Wernicke’s area. Wernicke’s area 3. Information from Wernicke’s area is transferred to Broca’s area. Broca’s area 4. Information is transferred from Broca’s area to the primary motor area. (all): © Marcus Raichle Figure The areas of the brain involved in reading The Limbic System and Higher Mental Functions


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