Presentation on theme: "Middle School Communications THE HUMAN BRAIN. Parts of the Cerebrum – Overview Will be reviewed over the next 6 slides The frontal lobe is located at."— Presentation transcript:
Parts of the Cerebrum – Overview Will be reviewed over the next 6 slides The frontal lobe is located at the front of the brain and is associated with reasoning, motor skills, higher level cognition, and expressive language Damage to the frontal lobe can lead to changes in habits, socialization, and attention as well as increased risk-taking. The parietal lobe is located in the middle section of the brain and is associated with processing tactile sensory information such as pressure, touch, and pain. Damage to the parietal lobe can result in problems with verbal memory, an impaired ability to control eye gaze and problems with language The occipital lobe is located at the back portion of the brain and is associated with interpreting visual stimuli and information. Damage to this lobe can cause visual problems such as difficulty recognizing objects, an inability to identify colors, and trouble recognizing words. The temporal lobe is located on the bottom section of the brain. This lobe is also the location of the primary auditory cortex, which is important for interpreting sounds and the language we hear. The hippocampus is also located in the temporal lobe, which is why this portion of the brain is also heavily associated with the formation of memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can lead to problems with memory speech perception and language skills. The cerebellum is located at the bottom base of the brain. This structure is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance. Damages to your cerebellum might lead to the disturbances in your muscle coordination and balance. Medulla Oblongata is located at the lowest section of the brain. This structure controls a number of autonomic functions, including heartbeat and breathing, making it a very critical part of the brain. Damage to the medulla oblongata can be fatal, as the patient will be unable to breathe, swallow, or perform other basic motor functions without assistance.
Frontal Lobe Location: front of the brain Associated with: reasoning, motor skills, higher level cognition, and expressive language. If damaged: changes in habits, socialization, and attention as well as increased risk- taking.
Parietal Lobe Location: middle section of the brain Associated with: processing tactile sensory information such as pressure, touch, and pain If damaged: problems with verbal memory, an impaired ability to control eye gaze and problems with language
Occipital Lobe Location: back portion of the brain Associated with: with interpreting visual stimuli and information If damaged: visual problems such as difficulty recognizing objects, an inability to identify colors, and trouble recognizing words
Temporal Lobe Location: bottom sides of the brain Associated with: interpreting sounds and language, hippocampus for forming memories If damaged: problems with memory speech perception and language skills
Cerebellum Location: bottom base of the brain Associated with: regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance If damaged: disturbances in muscle coordination and balance.
Medulla Oblongota Location: lowest section of the brain Associated with: autonomic functions, including heartbeat and breathing, making it a very critical part of the brain If damaged: can be fatal, as the patient will be unable to breathe, swallow, or perform other basic motor functions without assistance.
BIG BRAIN IDEAS Learning requires work. Work is described as the chemicals and electrical energy necessary to make changes in the brain. To learn we must cause neurons to fire “Firing “ refers to the electrical energy that must move across a neural network for learning to occur. Brain plasticity is a term which is used to refer the brain's unique ability to constantly change, grow, and remap itself over the course of a lifetime Working memory is characterized by a small capacity. It is thought to hold up to four elements of new information at one time. Thalamus functions are sensory processing and movement. The thalamus functions as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord. If you experience sensations such as pain, pressure, or temperature, you have your thalamus to thank! Senses such as taste, sight, sound, and touch also must pass through the thalamus as they make their first stops in the brain.
Brain Waves Beta 12-150 cycle/sec. Divides focus to agitated state The Beta state is associated with peak concentration, heightened alertness, hand eye coordination and visual acuity. The ability to do two things at once. (example: fold laundry and talk on the phone/read aloud) Alpha 8-12 cycle/sec. Relaxed state Optimal for learning Best ways to prepare yourself for the “alpha state.” Soothing music Sit comfortably or lie down Closing eyes Perform a number of deep breaths Theta 4-8 cycles/sec. Just before bed Processing state Processes information from the day and stores what it thinks is important to certain memory banks. Encodes long term learning Teachers 5 minutes Delta 0-4 cycle/sec. Deep sleep Cells are replenished and nourished Cells repair
What Is a Neuron? A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but there is one key difference between neurons and other cells. Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body.
Neurons Neurons are specialized cells which send messages with the use of chemical impulses sent across a space called the synapse. There are a number of different types of neurons, but all share the traits of having dendrites and axons, and the signals they send pass one way only, entering at the dendrites through receptors which respond to specific neurotransmitters and exiting at the axon. These cells also reset very rapidly after a signal has been passed along, so that they are ready for the next chemical impulse when it arrives.
Dendrites The term “dendrite” comes from the Greek word for “tree,” reflecting the distinctively tree-like structure of the dendrites. Dendrites are an important part of nerve cells. The dendrites are responsible for picking up information from neighboring neurons and transmitting this information to the cell body, also known as the soma.
The soma, the cell body, passes information along the axon, another structure in the nerve cell. The axon in turn transmits signals to the dendrites of neighboring neurons. Myelin sheath protects the nerves and helps ensure signal transmission. This entire process occurs in a fraction of a second, allowing neurons to respond extremely rapidly to a wide variety of signals.
The axon terminal contains synapses where neurotransmitters are releases for communication with other neurons. Synapse is the tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron.