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The Human Brain Master Watermark Image:

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Presentation on theme: "The Human Brain Master Watermark Image:"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Human Brain Master Watermark Image:

2 Cerebrum - The largest division of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes. Cerebrum Cerebellum

3 Lobes of the Brain (4) O Frontal O Parietal O Occipital O Temporal

4 Lobes of the Brain - Frontal O The Frontal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Frontal Bone of the skull. (Investigation: Phineas Gage) It plays an integral role in the following functions/actions: - Memory Formation - Emotions - Decision Making/Reasoning - Personality Investigation (Phineas Gage) Modified from:

5 Lobes of the Brain - Parietal Lobe O The Parietal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Parietal Bone of the skull. It plays a major role in the following functions/actions: - Senses and integrates sensation(s) - Spatial awareness and perception (Proprioception - Awareness of body/ body parts in space and in relation to each other) Modified from:

6 Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe O The Occipital Lobe of the Brain is located deep to the Occipital Bone of the Skull. Its primary function is the processing, integration, interpretation, etc. of VISION and visual stimuli. Modified from:

7 Lobes of the Brain – Temporal Lobe O The Temporal Lobes are located on the sides of the brain, deep to the Temporal Bones of the skull. They play an integral role in the following functions: - Hearing - Organization/Comprehension of language - Information Retrieval (Memory and Memory Formation) Modified from:

8 The Nervous System

9 How the nervous system works O Nervous system controls body functions from emotions, movements, thinking and behavior

10 Nervous System = 2 parts O 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) – the brain and the spinal cord O 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – the smaller branches of nerves that reach that other parts of the body

11 PNS and CNS O PNS Conducts information from the bodily organs to the CNS and take information back to the organs O All parts are protected in some way: brain by the skull and several layers of sheathing; spinal cord by the vertebrae; peripheral nerves by layers of sheathing

12 How are messages transmitted? O Messages to and from the brain travel along the nerves which are strings of long, thin cells called NEURONS O Neurons can fire over and over again, hundreds of times a minute O The neuron “fires” on an all-or-nothing principle – must be completely stimulated in order to send messages

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14 Parts of the Neurons O 1. Cell Body: contains nucleus and produces the energy needed to fuel the activity O 2. Dendrites: short, thin fibers that stick out from the cell body which receive impulses from other neurons and send them to the cell body O 3. Axon – long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body toward the dendrites O *Myelin sheath – insulates and protects the axon for some neurons O Multiple sclerosis – myelin sheath is destroyed

15 Neuron Connection O Space between neurons is called the SYNAPSE – junction between the neurons O Neuron transmits its message to another neuron be releasing neurotransmitters – chemicals O Can excite the next neuron or inhibit

16 Types of Neurotransmitters O Norepinephrine – involved with memory and learning O Endorphin – inhibits pain O Acetylcholine – movement and memory; low dosages can lead to paralysis or Alzheimer’s disease O Dopamine – involved with learning, emotional arousal; low levels are linked to schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease O Serotonin – may result in depression

17 Neuron Activity O Each individual is either ON or OFF O Afferent neurons – sensory neurons, relay messages from the sense organs (including eyes, ears, nose and skin) to the brain O Efferent neurons – motor neurons – send signals from the brain to the glands and muscles O Interneuron – carry impulses between the neurons in the body

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19 Voluntary and Involuntary Activities O Somatic Nervous System – refers to the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary activites O Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) – refers to the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary activities (heartbeat, stomach activity, pupil enlargement)

20 ANS has 2 parts O 1. Sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for dealing with emergencies or strenuous activity O 2. Parasympathetic nervous system works to conserve energy and to enhance the body’s ability to recover

21 Assignment O Pick one of the following: O Autism O Dyslexia O Multiple Sclerosis O Alzheimer’s Disease O Parkinson’s Disease O Tourette’s Syndrome O Depression O Schizophrenia O Write a two to three page paper on the topic discussing O What the problem is O What the causes of the problem are O Possible cures for the disease – if any O Research being conducted on the problem


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