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VERTEBRATE EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY –Classified by presence of head, vertebral column, jaws, and amniotic egg –Amniotes have a terrestrially adapted egg that can survive on land Chapter 19 The evolution of vertebrate diversity © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Biologists have developed hypotheses for the evolution of chordate groups using –anatomical, –molecular, and –fossil evidence. Figure 19.1 –illustrates a current view of the major groups of chordates and 19.1 Derived characters define the major clades of chordates © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.1 Ancestral chordate Head Vertebral column Jaws Lungs or lung derivatives Legs Amniotic egg Milk Mammals Reptiles Amphibians Lobe-fins Ray-finned fishes Sharks, rays Lampreys Hagfishes Tunicates Lancelets Chordates Craniates Vertebrates Jawed vertebrates Tetrapods Amniotes Lobed fins
Hagfishes and lampreys (Class Agnatha) –are craniates, –have a notochord, but –lack hinged jaws and paired fins. Lampreys but not hagfishes have rudimentary vertebral structures. Thus, –lampreys are vertebrates but –hagfishes are not vertebrates. 19.2 Hagfishes and lampreys lack hinged jaws © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hagfishes are deep-sea scavengers that produce slime as an antipredator defense. Lamprey adults are parasites that penetrate the sides of fishes with their rasping tongues. Larval lampreys –resemble lancelets and –are suspension feeders that live in freshwater streams, where they feed, buried in sediment. 19.2 Hagfishes and lampreys lack hinged jaws © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.2A Slime glands
Jawed vertebrates –appeared in the fossil record about 470 million years ago and Three lineages of jawed fishes with gills and paired fins are commonly called fishes: 1.chondrichthyans—sharks and rays, 2.ray-finned fishes—tuna, trout, and goldfish, and 3.lobe-finned fishes—coelacanths and lungfishes. 19.3 Jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins include sharks, ray-finned fishes, and lobe- finned fishes © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chondrichthyans have –a flexible skeleton made of cartilage, –electrosensors on their heads, and –a lateral line system that helps them locate prey. –Most sharks are fast-swimming predators, with sharp vision and a keen sense of smell. –Most rays are adapted for life on the bottom, with dorsoventrally flattened bodies and eyes on the top of their heads. 19.3 Jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins include sharks, ray-finned fishes, and lobe- finned fishes © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.3B Gill openings
Ray-finned fishes (Class Osteichthyes) have –an internal skeleton reinforced with a hard matrix of calcium phosphate, –flattened scales covered with mucus, –an operculum that covers a chamber of gills, and –a buoyant swim bladder (derived from an ancestral lung). With more than 27,000 species, ray-finned fishes are the most diverse group of vertebrates. 19.3 Jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins include sharks, ray-finned fishes, and lobe- finned fishes © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.3D Gills Operculum Bony skeleton Pectoral fin Heart Pelvic fin Swim bladder Anal fin Dorsal fin A rainbow trout, a ray-fin
Figure 19.3E A balloon fish A flounder A seahorse
Lobe-fin fishes (Class Osteichthyes) have muscular pelvic and pectoral fins. Today, three lineages of lobe-fins survive: 1.coelacanths, living deep in the oceans, were once thought to be extinct, 2.lungfishes, which can gulp air into lungs, inhabit stagnant waters in the Southern Hemisphere, and 3.tetrapods, adapted to life on land, include terrestrial vertebrates. 19.3 Jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins include sharks, ray-finned fishes, and lobe- finned fishes © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
19.4 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: New fossil discoveries are filling in the gaps of tetrapod evolution Fossils reveal that the first tetrapod was a four- limbed fish that lived in shallow water and could breathe air. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Amphibians –include salamanders and frogs, –use their moist skins to supplement their lungs for gas exchange, –often have poison glands in their skins, –usually return to standing water to reproduce, –undergo metamorphosis from a larval stage to the adult form, and –were the first tetrapods able to move on land. 19.5 Amphibians are tetrapods—vertebrates with two pairs of limbs © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.5A A fire salamander
Figure 19.5C Poison arrow frog
Reptiles (including birds or in the separate Class Aves) and mammals are amniotes. The major derived character of this group is an amniotic egg. The amnion is a fluid-filled sac surrounding the embryo. 19.6 Reptiles are amniotes—tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Reptiles –include lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians, birds, and extinct dinosaurs, –have a skin covered with scales and waterproofed with keratin, –obtain most of their oxygen using lungs, and –are ectothermic, absorbing external heat rather than generating much of their own. 19.6 Reptiles are amniotes—tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.6A A bull snake laying eggs
Figure 19.6C Bearded dragon
Most birds can fly, and nearly every part of their bodies reflects adaptations that enhance flight. –The forelimbs are adapted as feather-covered wings that act as airfoils. –Large flight muscles anchored to a central ridge along the breastbone provide power. –Many features help reduce weight for flight: –Present-day birds lack teeth. –The tail is supported by only a few small vertebrae. –Feathers have hollow shafts. –Their bones have a honeycombed structure that makes them strong but light. 19.7 Birds are feathered reptiles with adaptations for flight © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Flight is very costly, and present-day birds have a high rate of metabolism. Unlike other living reptiles, birds are endothermic, using heat generated by metabolism to maintain a warm, steady body temperature. Birds have relatively large brains and display complex behaviors. 19.7 Birds are feathered reptiles with adaptations for flight © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.7A Frigate bird
Figure 19.7B Courtship behavior of the wandering albatross
Figure 19.7C Archaeopteryx, an extinct bird Feathers Teeth (like dinosaur) Wing claw (like dinosaur) Long tail with many vertebrae (like dinosaur)
Mammals are endothermic amniotes with –hair, which insulates their bodies, and –mammary glands, which produce milk. Mammals have efficient respiratory and circulatory systems that support their high rate of metabolism. Mammalian teeth are differentiated for many kinds of diets. 19.8 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Monotremes are egg-laying mammals. Living monotremes include –the duck-billed platypus and –Echidnas or spiny anteaters. Unlike monotremes, the embryos of marsupials and eutherians (placental mammals) are nurtured by a placenta, in which nutrients from the mother’s blood diffuse into the embryo’s blood. 19.8 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.8A Duckbilled platypus with newly hatched young
Marsupials have a brief gestation and give birth to tiny, embryonic offspring that complete development while attached to the mother’s nipples. Eutherians are mammals that bear fully developed live young. They are commonly called placental mammals because their placentas are more complex than those of marsupials. 19.8 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 19.8B Gray kangaroo and young
Figure 19.8C Zebra
18.16 Lampreys are vertebrates that lack hinged jaws –Lampreys represent the oldest living lineage of vertebrates Suspension feeders in freshwater streams.
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