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Dr. fahad albadr. At the end of the lecture, students should be able to: position  Describe the position of the pituitary gland. the structures related.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. fahad albadr. At the end of the lecture, students should be able to: position  Describe the position of the pituitary gland. the structures related."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. fahad albadr

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3 At the end of the lecture, students should be able to: position  Describe the position of the pituitary gland. the structures related  List the structures related to the pituitary gland. the lobes of the gland  Differentiate between the lobes of the gland.

4 master of endocrine glands  It is referred to as the master of endocrine glands.  It is a small oval structure 1 cm in diameter.

5 X-RAY SKULL: LATERAL VIEW SAGITTAL SECTION OF HEAD & NECK Hypophyseal fossa Sphenoidal air sinus Pituitary gland

6 It lies in the middle cranial fossa It is well protected in sella turcica (hypophyseal fossa) of body of sphenoid Sella turcica POSITION

7 optic chiasma mamillary bodies  it lies between optic chiasma (anteriorly) & mamillary bodies (posteriorly). Mamillary body Optic chiasma Body of sphenoid

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9 A fold of dura mater (Diaphragma sellae) covers the pituitary gland & has an opening for passage of infundibulum (pituitary stalk) connecting the gland to hypothalamus.

10  SUPERIOR:  SUPERIOR: Diaphragma sellae  INFERIOR:  INFERIOR: Sphenoidal air sinuses  LATERAL:  LATERAL: Cavernous sinuses

11 The gland is subdivided into: it is the 1) Anterior lobe (Adenohypophysis): it is the True gland, Secretes hormones hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract 2) Posterior lobe (Neurohypophysis): connected to hypothalamus through hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract, Stores hormones secreted by hypothalamic nuclei Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract

12 ARTERIES: ARTERIES: Superior & inferior hypophyseal arteries (branches of internal carotid artery) VEINS: VEINS: Hypophyseal veins drain into Cavernous Sinuses.

13  Superior hypophyseal: (hypophyseal portal system).  Superior hypophyseal: supplies infundibulum & forms a capillary network from which vessels pass downward & form sinusoids into the anterior lobe of pituitary gland (hypophyseal portal system).  Inferior hypophyseal:  Inferior hypophyseal: supplies posterior lobe of pituitary gland. a hypothalamo- hypophseal portal vessel

14  Hormone-releasing & inhibiting factors  Hormone-releasing & inhibiting factors produced by hypothalamus use Hypophyseal Portal System of vessels to reach the Anterior lobe of pituitary gland ANTERIOR LOBE

15  The neurohypophysis receives a nerve supply from some of the hypothalamic nuclei (supraoptic & paraventricular)  The axons of these nuclei convey neurosecretion  The axons of these nuclei convey their neurosecretion to the Posterior lobe of pituitary gland through Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal tract from where it passes into the blood stream. POSTERIOR LOBE

16  The gland is composed of two parts:  Anterior lobe (adeno hypophysis)  Posterior lobe (neuro hypophysis)  Normal size:  Weight: 0.5g  Height: 4-12 mm  Anterior posterior: 5-16 mm

17  Hormonal dysfunction  Cushing syndrome  Growth abnormalities e.g. Growth hormone deficiency, acromegaly  Visual abnormalities  headache

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19  What is best modality to image the pituitary gland ? A.X ray B.CT scan C.MRI D.US E.Nuclear medicine

20  What is best modality to image the pituitary gland ? A.X ray B.CT scan C.MRI D.US E.Nuclear medicine

21 CT scan MRI

22 CT scan MRI

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26 Optic sulcus 2- Anterior clinoid process 3-Floor of sella turcia (Pituitary fossa) 4- Posterior clinoid process 5- Dorsum sella 6- Sphenoid sinus

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30 pituitary gland 2- sphenoid sinus 3- optic chiasm 4- hypothalamus 5- pituitary stalk 6- claivus

31 NORMAL PITUITARY ADENOMA

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35 Pituitary gland Optic chiasm Pituitary stalk Carotid artery Cavernou s sinus Sphenoid sinus

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