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Katherine C. Bengan, RN MSN

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1 Katherine C. Bengan, RN MSN
The Human Brain Katherine C. Bengan, RN MSN



4 Are you Left or Right brain?

5 See if you are using your left or right brain?
First, identify yourself as right or left brain person: 1. Hold your hands together, as if you were praying. Look at your hands. If you see Left thumb is below the right thumb ---> left brain Right thumb is below the left thumb ---> right brain 2. Fold your arms in front of you (as if you are angry) Right arm above left arm ---> left brain Left arm above right arm ---> right brain

6 Based on 1+2 (order important), below is the interpretation of your personality.
Right-Left ========== Considerate, traditional, indirect type Can instinctly read other's emotion, and respond friendly by natures. Although not very into taking intiatives in moving forward, but this person will always take a step back in supporting others. Stable personality and considerate, give others a being protected feeling. But the weakness is they cannot say no; regardless how unwilling they are, they will take care of others.

7 Right-Right =========== Loves challenges type
Straightfoward. Once they decided on one thing, will take action right away. Very curious, and love challenges. Dare to face dangers without thinkingthrough (sometimes foolishly). Their weakness is they dont listen to others, will filter in only what whey want to hear in a conversation, and very subjective. However, because of their straightforward attitude, they tend to be fairly popular.

8 Left-Left ========= Dedicated, cold, perfectionist Very logical in all aspects. The only way to defeat (or win over) him/her is through reasons. Has a lot of prides, and feeling strongly about doing the right thing. If they are your friends, they are very trustworthy. However, if they are your opponets, they will be very tough to deal with. Because they can be very "anal" as a perfectionist, they usually leave a bad impression of being hard to deal with when first met.

9 Left-Right ========== Likes to take care of others, leader type Has a cool and keen observation ability to see through situations, yet still can be considerate in others needs. Because of their cool and calm nature, and strong sense of responsibility, they tend to become head of a group. Popular among people. However, they may not be able to help themselves in meddling because they want to take care of others too much.


11 External Brain Structures

12 The Cerebrum The largest portion of the brain is the cerebrum. It consists of two hemispheres that are connected together at the corpus callosum. The cerebrum is often divided into five lobes that are responsible for different brain functions. Corpus callosum

13 The Cerebrum Neocortex The cerebrum’s surface—the neocortex- is convoluted into hundreds of folds. The neocortex is where all the higher brain functions take place.

14 1 6 2 5 3 4


16 Lobes of the Cerebrum Limbic lobe Frontal lobe Parietal lobe
Occipital lobe Temporal lobe

17 Frontal Lobe The frontal lobe is the area of the brain responsible for higher cognitive functions. These include: Problem solving Spontaneity Memory Language Motivation Judgment Impulse control Social and sexual behavior.

18 Temporal Lobe The temporal lobe plays a role in emotions, and is also responsible for smelling, tasting, perception, memory, understanding music, aggressiveness, and sexual behavior. The temporal lobe also contains the language area of the brain.

19 Parietal Lobe The parietal lobe plays a role in our sensations of touch, smell, and taste. It also processes sensory and spatial awareness, and is a key component in eye- hand co-ordination and arm movement. The parietal lobe also contains a specialized area called Wernicke’s area that is responsible for matching written words with the sound of spoken speech.

20 Occipital Lobe The occipital lobe is at the rear of the brain and controls vision and recognition.

21 Limbic Lobe The limbic lobe is located deep in the brain, and makes up the limbic system.

22 The Limbic System The limbic system is the area of the brain that regulates emotion and memory. It directly connects the lower and higher brain functions. Cingulate gyrus Fornix Anterior thalamic nuclei Hypothalamus Amygdaloid nucleus Hippocampus

23 Thalamus Thalamus means “inner room” in Greek, as it sits deep in the brain at the top of the brainstem. The thalamus is called the gateway to the cerebral cortex, as nearly all sensory inputs pass through it to the higher levels of the brain.

24 Hypothalamus The hypothalamus sits under the thalamus at the top of the brainstem. Although the hypothalamus is small, it controls many critical bodily functions: Controls autonomic nervous system Center for emotional response and behavior Regulates body temperature Regulates food intake Regulates water balance and thirst Controls sleep-wake cycles Controls endocrine system The hypothalamus is shaded blue. The pituitary gland extends from the hypothalamus.

25 Brain Functions

26 Vision The visual cortex resides in the occipital lobe of the brain.
Sensory impulses travel from the eyes via the optic nerve to the visual cortex. Damage to the visual cortex can result in blindness.

27 Taste The gustatory complex (green circle) is the part of the sensory cortex (purple area) that is responsible for taste.

28 Cognition The prefrontal cortex is involved with intellect, complex learning, and personality. Injuries to the front lobe can cause mental and personality changes.

29 Emotion Prefrontal cortex Emotions are an extremely complex brain function. The emotional core of the brain is the limbic system. This is where senses and awareness are first processed in the brain. Mood and personality are mediated through the prefrontal cortex. This part of the brain is the center of higher cognitive and emotional functions. Limbic system

30 Speech Broca’s Area Broca’s area is where we formulate speech and the area of the brain that sends motor instructions to the motor cortex. Injury to Broca’s area can cause difficulty in speaking. The individual may know what words he or she wishes to speak, but will be unable to do so.

31 Language Auditory Association Area Wernicke’s area is a specialized portion of the parietal lobe that recognizes and understands written and spoken language. Wernicke’s area surrounds the auditory association area. Damage to this part of the brain can result in someone hearing speech, but not understanding it. Wernicke’s Area

32 Hearing There are two auditory areas of the brain: The primary auditory area (brown circle) is what detects sounds that are transmitted from the ear. It is located in the sensory cortex. The auditory association area (purple circle) is the part of the brain that is used to recognize the sounds as speech, music, or noise.

33 Hallucinations: A Window on the Brain Broca’s Area (Speech)
Wernicke’s Area (Hearing) What Area Do You Think is More Active With Auditory Hallucinations? Hallucinations: A Window on the Brain

34 Motor Cortex The motor portion of the cerebrum is illustrated here. The light red area is the premotor cortex, which is responsible for repetitive motions of learned motor skills. The dark red area is the primary motor area, and is responsible for control of skeletal muscles. Different areas of the brain are associated with different parts of the body. Injury to the motor cortex can result in motor disturbance in the associated body part.

35 Sensory Cortex The sensory portion of the cerebrum is illustrated here. Different areas of the brain are associated with different parts of the body, as can be seen below. Injury to the sensory cortex can result in sensory disturbance in the associated body part.

36 Specialization and Integration

37 Electroencephalogram (EEG)
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

38 CT (computed tomography) Scan
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body; also called CAT scan PET (positron emission tomography) Scan a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain

39 PET Scan

40 MRI Scan

41 Specialization and Integration
Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking words


43 Neural Communication Synapse [SIN-aps] Neurotransmitters
junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons when released by the sending neuron, neuro-transmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse

44 Neural Communication


46 Neural Communication Dopamine Pathways Serotonin Pathways

47 Hayyy!!! Natapos din ang lecture...Nakaka-brain drain!
Now I fully comprehend the intricacies and inner technicalities of my grey and white matter... Hayyy!!! Natapos din ang lecture...Nakaka-brain drain! DUH?!

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