STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN 1.MRI –magnetic resonance imagery –involves passing nonharmful radio frequencies through the brain 2.fMRI –functional magnetic resonance imaging –measures the activity of specific neurons that are functioning during cognitive tasks, such as thinking, listening
STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN 3.PET scans –positron emission tomography –involves injecting a slightly radioactive solution into the blood and then measuring the amount of radiation absorbed by neurons –http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=d9iOxMFmPlA
transcranial magnetic stimulation http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/10/05101900305 6.htm
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN …we will look at Major divisions of the nervous system –central nervous system - CNS –peripheral nervous system - PNS
PERIPHERAL & CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM …remember Peripheral Nervous System –made up of nerves that are located throughout the body, except in the brain & spinal cord Central Nervous System –made up of neurons located in the brain & spinal cord
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN Peripheral nervous system - PNS –includes all the nerves that extend from the spinal cord and carry messages to and from various muscles, glands, and sense organs located throughout the body Subdivisions of the PNS 1.somatic nervous system 2.autonomic nervous system - ANS 1.sympathetic division 2.parasympathetic division
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN Somatic nervous system –network of nerves that connect either to sensory receptors or to muscles that you can move voluntarily, such as muscles in your limbs, back, neck, and chest –nerves contain two kinds of fibers Afferent –sensory fibers; carry information to the brain Efferent –motor fibers; carry information from brain or spinal cord to the muscles
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 4: Incredible Nervous System
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN Autonomic nervous system - ANS –regulates heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, digestion, hormone secretion, and other functions A. Sympathetic division –triggered by threatening or challenging physical or psychological stimuli, increases physiological arousal and prepares the body for action (fight/flight) B.Parasympathetic division –returns the body to a calmer, decreases physiological arousal(decreases heart rate/lowers BP) and is involved in digestion Homeostasis: sympathetic and parasympathetic systems work together to keep the body’s level of arousal in balance for optimum functioning
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN Forebrain –largest part of the brain –has right and left sides called hemispheres –hemispheres are responsible for a number of functions, including learning and memory, speaking and language, emotional responses, experiencing sensations, initiating voluntary movements, planning, and making decisions
The Cerebral Cortex Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes Four lobes –Frontal lobe –Parietal lobe –Occipital lobe –Temporal lobe
CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES Wrinkled cortex –a thin layer of cells that essentially covers the entire surface of the forebrain –the evolutionary purpose of the outer cortex being wrinkled is that it is able to contain billions of more neurons than if it was a smooth surface
Frontal Lobe THE CEREBRUM: Frontal Lobe Behavior Abstract thought processes Speech Attention Intellect Reflection Initiative Coordination of movements Muscle movements Skilled movements overview : involved with personality, emotions, and motor behaviors
Frontal Lobe Frontal lobe: functions –motor cortex –narrow strip of cortex that is located on the back edge of the frontal lobe and extends down its side –involved in the initiation of all voluntary movements –right side controls left –left side controls right –organization and function of motor cortex
Language in the Brain http://www.news-medical.net/health/The-Human-Brain.aspx
Parietal Lobe Sense of touch (tactile sensation) Appreciation of form through touch Response to internal stimuli Sensory combination and comprehension Some language and reading functions Spatial associations Overview: involved with perception and sensory experiences –location of somatosensory cortex: narrow strip of cortex that is located on the front edge of the parietal lobe and extends down its side
Parietal Lobe Parietal lobe: function –involved in several cognitive functions, including recognizing objects, remembering items, and perceiving and analyzing objects in space
Temporal Lobe Auditory memories Some hearing Music Fear Language Speech Emotions Overview:involved with hearing and speaking
Temporal Lobe Temporal lobe: functions –primary auditory cortex located on top edge of each temporal lobe, receives electrical signals from receptors in the ears and transforms these signals into meaningful sound sensations, such as vowels and consonants –auditory association area: located directly below the primary auditory cortex transforms basic sensory information, such as noises or sounds, into recognizable auditory information, such as words or music
Temporal Lobe Temporal lobe: functions –Broca’s area - frontal lobe located in left frontal lobe necessary for combining sounds into words and arranging words into meaningful sentences –Wernicke’s area located in the left temporal lobe necessary for speaking in coherent sentences and for understanding speech
Occipital Lobe Vision Reading Visual memory and associations Overview: involved with visual processing
Occipital lobe: functions –Vision: primary visual cortex which is: located at the very back of the occipital lobe –receives electrical signals from receptors in the eyes and transforms these signals into meaningless basic visual sensations, such as lights, lines, shadows, colors, and textures Occipital Lobe –visual association area: transforms basic sensations, such as lights, lines, colors, and textures, into complete, meaningful visual perceptions, such as persons, objects, or animals
Lobe Review Slide http://www.umich.edu/~cogneuro/jpg/Brod_sagtl.gif Functional Areas of the Brain FunctionBrodmann Area Vision primary secondary 17 18, 19, 20, 21, 37 Audition primary secondary 41 22, 42 Body Sensation primary secondary 1, 2, 3 5, 7 Sensation, tertiary7, 22, 37, 39, 40 Motor primary secondary eye mov't speech 4 6 8 44 Motor, tertiary9, 10, 11, 45, 46, 47
Forebrain: Limbic System: The Old Brain Structures: –Hypothalamus –Amygdala –Thalamus –Hippocampus The Limbic System though very basic and old constitutes a part of the Forebrain.
Forebrain: Limbic System: Old Brain 1.Hypothalamus –regulates many motivational behaviors, including eating, drinking, and sexual responses; emotional behaviors such as arousing the body when fighting or fleeing, and secretion of hormones, such as occurs at puberty 2.Amygdala –located in the tip of the hippocampus –receives input from all the senses –evaluates the emotional significance of stimuli and facial expressions, especially those involving fear, distress, or threat
LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN 3.Thalamus –gathers and processes information from the senses –involved in receiving sensory information, doing some initial processing, and then relaying the sensory information to areas of the cortex 4.Hippocampus –curved structure inside the temporal lobe –Involved in saving many kinds of fleeting memories by putting them into permanent storage in various parts of the brain
Midbrain Midbrain/Mesencephalon –has areas for vision, hearing, eye and body movement 1.contains the reticular formation, which arouses the forebrain so that it is ready to process information from the senses –essential for processing voluntary motor movement 2. VTA: mechanism greatly involved in the feeling of pleasure 3. Nucleus Accumbens: same as VTA (these neurons are linked with the VTA)
Hindbrain Pons –functions as a bridge to interconnect messages between the spinal cord and brain Medulla –located on top of the spinal cord –includes a group of cells that control vital reflexes, such as respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure Cerebellum –located in the very back and underneath the brain –involved in coordinating motor movements but not in initiating voluntary movements
1.Split-Brain Studies : What happens when the Corpus Callosum is severed? 2.Hemispheric Specialization What different abilities have each of the hemispheres developed? Lastly! (The Last (2) Concepts we will cover
Corpus Callosum/Anterior Commisure (2) Brain structures that house millions of neural connections between the (2) hemispheres Communication between the left and right hemispheres of the brain Corpus is the larger of the (2) structures
Split-Brain Studies Purpose: when radical surgery is needed to separate both hemispheres i.e. individuals with severe epileptic disorder Contribution: demonstrates the functions of each hemisphere and how they separately contribute to our holistic perception of the world. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfGwsAdS9Dc
For the commissurotomy subject, direct awareness is no longer whole. An object felt in the left hand out of sight cannot be matched to the same kind of object felt separately and unseen in the right hand. As long as the eyes are stationary, something seen just to the left of the fixation point cannot be compared to something seen on the right side. Comparable divisions in olfactory and auditory awareness may be demonstrated. Furthermore, although sight and touch communicate normally on each side, left visual field to left hand or right visual field to right hand, the crossed two- hemisphere combinations fail, as if experiences of eye and hand were obtained by separate persons.
Functions: -Nonverbal (verbal abilities are very “elementary” -Spatial abilities -Holistic (facial expressions/situat ional cues -Recognizing others
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM What is it?: The endocrine system is an information signal system much like the nervous system. Hormones regulate many functions of an organism, including mood, growth and development, tissue function, and metabolism.nervous systemmoodgrowth and developmenttissue function metabolism Why know it?: Similar to the central nervous system of the body, the glands that make up the endocrine system release hormones into the bloodstream that have profound effects on human behavior.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Endocrine System –Made up of numerous glands that are located throughout the body. Glands secrete various chemicals called hormones. Pituitary Pancreas Thyroid Adrenal glands Gonads
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 1.Pituitary gland –hangs below the hypothalamus –divided into anterior and posterior a. Posterior –rear portion –regulates water and salt balance b. Anterior –front portion –regulates growth through secretion of growth hormone –produces hormones that control the adrenal cortex, pancreas, thyroid, and pancreas
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 2.Pancreas –regulates the level of sugar in the bloodstream by secreting insulin 3.Thyroid –located in the neck –regulates metabolism through secretion of hormones 4. Adrenal glands –adrenal cortex (outside part): secretes hormones that regulate sugar and salt balance –adrenal medulla (inside part):secretes two hormones that arouse the body to deal with stress and emergencies 1.epinephrine (adrenaline) 2.norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 5. Gonads –Females ovaries produce hormones that regulate sexual development, ovulation, and growth of sex organs –Males testes produce hormones that regulate sexual development, production of sperm, and growth of sex organs
Overview By understanding and applying the contributions of both the CNS, PNS and the Endocrine System, a great percentage of human behaviors can be understood as well as their underlying causes.
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