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The Brain & Nervous System [Class Number Section] [Instructor Name]

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Presentation on theme: "The Brain & Nervous System [Class Number Section] [Instructor Name]"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Brain & Nervous System [Class Number Section] [Instructor Name]

2 Overview (Pt.1) Brain Myths Complexity Development Structure – Name That Nervous System Telencephalon

3 Mythbusters: 8 Myths about the Human Brain 1) Einstein’s brain was different than our brains. 2) We only use 10% of our brain. 3) Listening to Mozart makes you smarter. 4) People are either “right-brained” or “left-brained”. 5) Drinking alcohol always kills brain cells. 6) Brain damage is always permanent. 7) The heart is more important for love than the brain. 8) The human brain is larger than any other animal brain.

4 Evolution of the Mammalian Brain

5 Overview (Pt.1) Brain Myths Complexity Development Structure – Name That Nervous System Telencephalon

6 Complexity

7 Overview (Pt.1) Brain Myths Complexity Development Structure – Name That Nervous System Telencephalon

8 Development

9 Important Terms 1.Neural crest 2.Neuroblasts 3.Neuroepithelium 4.Neural induction 5.Ectoderm 6.Rostrocaudal 7.Forebrain Definitions A.1 of 3 layers in the embryo B.Contains the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, and hypothalamus C.Lining of neural tube D.Progenitor cells E.Neurons outside the neural crest F.Head-to-tail direction G.Process that forms neural tube Matching Exercise

10 Overview (Pt.1) Brain Myths Complexity Development Structure – Name That Nervous System Telencephalon

11 Structure of the Nervous System Human Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Central Nervous System

12 Structure: Peripheral Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Cranial NervesSpinal Nerves Parasympathetic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System

13 Name that Nervous System Parasympathetic Sympathetic Somatic

14 Overview (Pt.1) Brain Myths Complexity Development Structure – Name That Nervous System Telencephalon

15 Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Temporal Lobe Occipital Lobe

16 PART 2: THE BRAIN AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

17 Overview (Pt.2) Mindmap Activity The Hemispheres – Hemispherectomy Structure: Central Nervous System The Limbic System Brain Stem Neuroimaging Techniques Brain Stimulation Techniques

18 Activity: Showercap Mindmap 1. Label each of the 4 lobes with blue label 2. Label specialized areas with green: corpus callosum, Broca’s Area, Wernicke’s area 3. Label information processing with yellow, include areas for: hearing, heat, pain and temperature, and integration of information 4. Label cortex areas in orange, include: motor, association, somatosensory, auditory, and visual

19 Overview (Pt.2) Mindmap Activity The Hemispheres – Hemispherectomy Structure: Central Nervous System The Limbic System Brain Matter Matters Brain Stem Neuroimaging Techniques Brain Stimulation Techniques

20 The Hemispheres Right Brain  Visual Hemisphere  Controls left side of body Splitting is the Key Left Brain  Language Hemisphere  Controls right side of body

21 Hemispherectomy What is it? Living with half a brain Is this the norm? Is it effective?

22 Overview (Pt.2) Mindmap Activity The Hemispheres – Hemispherectomy Structure: Central Nervous System The Limbic System Brain Matter Matters Brain Stem Neuroimaging Techniques Brain Stimulation Techniques

23 Structure: Central Nervous System Central Nervous System Telencephalon Diencephalon Mesencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon

24 Central Nervous System: Forebrain & Midbrain Diencephalon  Forebrain  Thalamus - Gatekeeper o Lateral Geniculate Nucleus  Hypothalamus - Regulation Mesencephalon  Mid Brain  Reticular Formation + Brainstem o Visual/Auditory Info

25 Central Nervous System: Hindbrain Metencephalon  Hindbrain  Pons o Sensory/Motor Info  Cerebellum o Little Brain o Coordination Myelencephalon  Hindbrain  Medulla Oblongata o Basic Survival

26 Overview (Pt.2) Mindmap Activity The Hemispheres – Hemispherectomy Structure: Central Nervous System The Limbic System Brain Matter Matters Brain Stem Neuroimaging Techniques Brain Stimulation Techniques

27 The Limbic System Amygdala  Arousal and Emotion Basal Ganglia  Movement/Coordination Cingulate Gyrus  Directing attention

28 Overview (Pt.2) Mindmap Activity The Hemispheres – Hemispherectomy Structure: Central Nervous System The Limbic System Brain Matter Matters Brain Stem Neuroimaging Techniques Brain Stimulation Techniques

29 Brain Matter Matters Early Brain Study  Phrenology Neuroanatomy  Post-mortem dissection Post-mortem dissection  CAT or MRI Scanners Brain Matter  Gray matter  Neurons  White matter  Myelin

30 Overview (Pt.2) Mindmap Activity The Hemispheres – Hemispherectomy Structure: Central Nervous System The Limbic System Brain Matter Matters Brain Stem Neuroimaging Techniques Brain Stimulation Techniques

31 Brainstem Structure  Medulla  Pons  Midbrain  Diencephalon Function  Survival  Sleep/Wake Cycle  Sensory/Motor Function  Growth/hormonal behaviors

32 Overview (Pt.2) Mindmap Activity The Hemispheres – Hemispherectomy Structure: Central Nervous System The Limbic System Brain Matter Matters Brain Stem Neuroimaging Techniques Brain Stimulation Techniques

33 Neuroimaging Electroencephalography (EEG)  Electrical Activity

34 Neuroimaging Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) & Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  Structure

35 Neuroimaging Positron Emission Topography (PET)  Blood Flow

36 Neuroimaging Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)  Blood flow

37 Neuroimaging Diffuse Optical Imaging (DOI)  Oxygenation & Activity

38 Overview (Pt.2) Mindmap Activity The Hemispheres – Hemispherectomy Structure: Central Nervous System The Limbic System Brain Matter Matters Brain Stem Neuroimaging Techniques Brain Stimulation Techniques

39 Brain Manipulation Techniques Non-human experimental methods  Lesions or Ablations  Case Studies Human experimental methods  Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)TMS  Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

40 Photo Attribution Slide 12 Photo Credit: Nico Ibieta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ Slide 12 Photo Credit: Mike L Photo's https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Slide 12 Photo Credit: saminblue https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Slide 12 Photo Credit: KatieKrueger https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ Slide 19 Photo Credit: MTSOfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Slide 19 Photo Credit: Tormod Ulsberg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/ Slide 20 Photo Credit: EUSKALANATO https://www.flickr.com/photos/euskalanato/ / https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Slide 26 Photo Credit: wildwise studio https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/ Slide 28 Photo Credit: bucaorg (Paul Burnett) https://www.flickr.com/photos/bucaorg/ / https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/ Slide 30 Photo Credit: OpenStax College Slide 32 Photo Credit: Ian Ruotsala https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Slide 33 Photo Credit: pennstatenews https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/ Slide 34 Photo Credit: Reigh LeBlanc https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ Sldie 35 & 36 Photo Credit: jgmarcelino https://www.flickr.com/photos/gkpics/ / https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Slide 37 Photo Credit: Unknown NIMH author


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