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Do Now: Is the dancer turning clockwise or counter clockwise?

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Presentation on theme: "Do Now: Is the dancer turning clockwise or counter clockwise?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Do Now: Is the dancer turning clockwise or counter clockwise?

2 Put your right hand in the air Point palm downward Put your right finger on your ear Say “This is my favorite ear”

3 What your brain just did… Analyzed instructions to lift right hand Called on area that controls hand movements in left part of your brain Called on area that controls hand movements (your finger did not end up in your eye or nose!) Searched memory bank for words you needed Put words together into sentence Sent to speech area to say the words Triggered emotions in mid- brain…”Is she nuts?” “Why are we doing this?”

4 What is the structure of the brain? Brain Over 100 Billion Cells Each part works with others to control what think feel and do. Comprised of three major parts Lower Brain Mid Brain Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex (upper brain)

5 What does the brain look like?

6 Corpus Callosum Broad, thick band running from side to side and consisting of millions and millions of nerve fibers. Connections between left and right sides of brain. Highway of information – it is the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge of the I-84 of your brain!

7 Brain Stem Mid Brain Lower Brain Upper Brain

8 What is the Upper Brain? Cerebral Cortex: outermost layer of brain covers the cerebrum – gray matter. Higher level thought 100 Billion nerve cells It is the most highly developed part of the human brain and is responsible for thinking, perceiving, producing and understanding language. It is also the most recent structure in the history of brain evolution

9 Why is the cerebral cortex so important? Personality: makes us “human” “Seat of the soul” Example: when faced with severe brain injury to frontal lobe– personality sometimes changes completely Strokes, tumors – sometimes causes this Personality: makes us “human” “Seat of the soul” Example: when faced with severe brain injury to frontal lobe– personality sometimes changes completely Strokes, tumors – sometimes causes this

10 What does the mid brain do? Mid Brain Emotions Sexual instincts Limbic System Sense of smell Possible connection?

11 What does the lower brain do? Lower Brain primal reaction aggression

12 Hemispheres

13 Right Brain or Left Brain?

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15 You have inherited 1,000,000 dollars! Congratulations! You are moving to new house you are having made and have to pack your things in boxes. 1. How will you pack your priceless glassware that Aunt Edna left you in her will to make sure they don’t break? If any of them break, the money has to be given to a distant cousin. Describe in a few sentences how you will pack the glasses?

16 Where does the brain sit? Central Station of Human Nervous System CNS (Central Nervous System) Enclosed in the cranium Floats in cerebrospinal fluid Most common damage: stroke, blunt head trauma

17 How is the brain protected? Protected by the thick bones of the skull Cerebral Cortex covering Suspended in cerebrospinal fluid cerebrospinal fluid Isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier a semi-permeable membrane that protects the brain. blood-brain barrier Protected by the thick bones of the skull Cerebral Cortex covering Suspended in cerebrospinal fluid cerebrospinal fluid Isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier a semi-permeable membrane that protects the brain. blood-brain barrier The delicate nature of the human brain makes it susceptible to many types of damage and disease. Infection of the brain is rare because of the barriers that protect it, but is very serious when it occurs. Multiple Sclerosis-mylen, insulation for nerves, is impaired. Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Chorea = CNS diseases The delicate nature of the human brain makes it susceptible to many types of damage and disease. Infection of the brain is rare because of the barriers that protect it, but is very serious when it occurs. Multiple Sclerosis-mylen, insulation for nerves, is impaired. Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Chorea = CNS diseases

18 Phineas Gage: Neuroscience’s Most Famous Patient

19 Summary There are three parts to the brain on a horizontal level Upper Brain: higher level thinking Mid Brain: (Limbic System)vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation Lower Brain: primitive functions, aggression, fight or flight Brain Stem: autonomic functions Two hemispheres – right hemisphere controls left, left hemisphere controls right Brain Dominance Theory: Right brain dominant – art, language, creative. Left brain – logical, math, organized

20 What is a stroke? A stroke is a medical emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. "Mini-strokes" or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), occur when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted.transient ischemic attacks Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg (especially on one side of the body) Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination Sudden severe headache with no known cause If you have any of these symptoms, you must get to a hospital quickly to begin treatment. Acute stroke therapies try to stop a stroke while it is happening by quickly dissolving the blood clot or by stopping the bleeding. Post-stroke rehabilitation helps individuals overcome disabilities that result from stroke damage. Drug therapy with blood thinners is the most common treatment for stroke. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

21 Do Now: Make a happy face Make an angry face Make a sad face Make a fearful face How do you know how to do that? Make a happy face Make an angry face Make a sad face Make a fearful face How do you know how to do that? Face Blindness Test

22 Fissure: groove along middle of brain Frontal Lobe::reasoning, personality, Thought, complex thoughts Parietal Lobe: sensory strip Motor Strip: along frontal lobe - movement Occipital Lobe: interprets visual information Temporal Lobe: speech, hearing Prefrontal Lobe: :personal memories Cerebellum: balance, coordination Reticular Activating System: alertness Cerebral cortex: covers brain (gray matter)

23 Do Now: This is a G rated activity– touch the area where your corpus callosum (under the fissure) is Now touch your frontal lobe. Now your Parietal lobe Now your Temporal lobe Now your Occipital lobe Now your Cerebellum Now your Medulla Oblongata

24 What are some other parts of their brain and their purpose? Brain stem: internal physical state of body Medulla Oblongata: breathing, heartbeat Pons: regulates brain during sleep Thalamus: relay station between senses and cerebral cortex Cerebellum: balance and movement Limbic system: emotions, memory Hippocampus: long term memory Amygdala: aggression, emotion, motives, (very active during adolescence) Hypothalamus: eating, drinking, body temperature

25 Reading: Disorders of the Brain Attention Deficit Disorder TBI: Traumatic Brain Injury Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia with Lewey Bodies: Although, where Alzheimer’s disease usually begins quite gradually, DLB often has a rapid or acute onset, with especially rapid decline in the first few months. While the specific symptoms in a person with DLB will vary, core features of DLB are: 1) fluctuating cognition with great variations in attention and alertness from day to day and hour to hour 2) recurrent visual hallucinations. 3.)REM Behavior Disorder

26 Fissure: groove along middle of brain Frontal Lobe::reasoning, personality, Thought, complex thoughts Parietal Lobe: sensory strip Motor Strip: along frontal lobe - movement Occipital Lobe: interprets visual information Temporal Lobe: speech, hearing Prefrontal Lobe: :personal memories Cerebellum: balance, coordination Reticular Activating System: alertness Cerebral cortex: covers brain (gray matter)

27 Split Brain Game

28 Dr. Oliver Saks In 1966 Dr. Sacks began working as a consulting neurologist for Beth Abraham Hospital in the Bronx, a chronic care hospital where he encountered an extraordinary group of patients, many of whom had spent decades in strange, frozen states, like human statues, unable to initiate movement. He recognized these patients as survivors of the great pandemic of sleepy sickness that had swept the world from 1916 to 1927, and treated them with a then-experimental drug, L-dopa, which enabled them to come back to life. They became the subjects of his book Awakenings, which later inspired a play by Harold Pinter ("A Kind of Alaska") and the Oscar-nominated feature film ("Awakenings") with Robert De Niro and Robin Williams.

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30 What are Neurons? What are Neurons? Neurons Cell body DNA, Mitochondria, Ribosomes (protein) Axons Long cable-like Carries nerve impulse on length of cell Myelin Thin covering over nerve Like insulated electrical wire Dendrites Branches connect to/communicate with other cells Located at either end of cell Myelinated neurons are found in the peripheral nerves (sensory and motor neurons), while non-myelinated neurons are found in the brain and spinal cord.

31 Synapses, neurotransmitters, neurons…oh my! Neuron Gather and transmit electric and chemical signals Synapse Point where 2 or more neurons connect, (pass info) Signals travel up to several feet Neurotransmitters Chemicals in the endings of nerve cells that send information across synapse

32 Travel from body to brain Sensory Neurons Travel from brain to body. Motor Neurons - sense the environment (chemicals, light, sound, touch) and put information into electrochemical messages transmitted by sensory neurons Receptors Connect sensory and motor neurons Interneurons

33 Motor functions Too much – Schizophrenia Too little – Parkinson’s, other diseases Dopamine Attention and REM sleep inducer Too little – Myashenia Gravis (muscle weakness, tired, Alzheimers Link Acetylcholine Relieve pain, increase wellbeing Natural form of morphine (woo hoo!) Endorphin chemical that helps maintain a "happy feeling," helps with sleep, anxiety, depression Serotonin amino acid that helps induce relaxation and sleep builds muscle tone. It balances the brain by inhibiting over-excitation. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) Keeps us alert or puts us to sleep – alcohol mimics reticular system neurons Reticular system lhttp://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/mouse.htmlhttp://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/mouse.html

34 Reuptake The main objective of a Reuptake Inhibitor is to substantially decrease the rate by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed, leaving a large gain in the concentration of neurotransmitter in the synapse. Example: Antidepressant drugs often use ssris (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) to cause a GAIN in amount of serotonin in brain.

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36 Serotonin Overdose ClassDrugs Antidepressants Monoamine oxidase inhibitorsMonoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), [1] TCAs, [1] SSRIs, [1] SNRIs, [1] bupropion, [6] nefazodone, [7] trazodone [7] [1]TCAs [1]SSRIs [1]SNRIs [1] bupropion [6]nefazodone [7]trazodone [7] Opioids tramadoltramadol, [1] pethidine, [1] fentanyl, [1] pentazoci ne, [1] buprenorphine [8] oxycodone, [9] hydrocod one [9] [1]pethidine [1]fentanyl [1]pentazoci ne [1]buprenorphine [8] oxycodone [9]hydrocod one [9] CNS stimulantsstimulants phenterminephentermine, [10] diethylpropion, [10] amphetam ine, [3][10] sibutramine, [1] methylphenidate, [10] m ethamphetamine, [10] cocaine [10] [10]diethylpropion [10]amphetam ine [3][10]sibutramine [1] methylphenidate [10]m ethamphetamine [10]cocaine [10] 5-HT 1 5-HT 1 agoniststriptans [1][10] PsychedelicsEcstasy Crystal Meth Meth ] LSD [11][12] ]LSD [11][12] Herbs St John's WortSt John's Wort, [1] Syrian rue, [1] Panax ginseng, [1] Nutmeg [13] [1]Syrian rue [1]Panax ginseng [1]Nutmeg [13] Others tryptophantryptophan, [1] L- Dopa, [14] valproate, [1] buspirone, [1] lithium, [1] li nezolid, [1][15] dextromethorphan, [1] 5- hydroxytryptophan, [7] chlorpheniramine, [10] ris peridone, [16] olanzapine, [17] ondansetron, [1] gra nisetron, [1] metoclopramide, [1] ritonavir [1] [1]L- Dopa [14]valproate [1]buspirone [1]lithium [1]li nezolid [1][15] dextromethorphan [1]5- hydroxytryptophan [7]chlorpheniramine [10]ris peridone [16] olanzapine [17]ondansetron [1]gra nisetron [1]metoclopramide [1]ritonavir [1]

37 What did we learn? Myelin: fatty sheath that covers nerves similar to an electrical wire – lesions can cause neurological symptoms Neurons: Motor = brain to body, Sensory = body to brain, Interneuron=connections between nerves, Receptors=receive neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters: electrical/chemical messages passed along by neurons Serotonin: happy chemical Dopamine: movement Acetylcholine: sleep, attention Endorphins: natural morphine

38 DO NOW: Reading: What are reflexes? 1.Read article 2.Answer questions for “reading” …you will answer the “listening” questions at the end of class and hand in.

39 What are reflexes? A reflex is an involuntary or automatic, action that your body does in response to something - without you even having to think about it. There are many types of reflexes and every healthy person has them. In fact, we're born with most of them…and most of them fade by age 6 months. Some infant reflexes that show up in adulthood can be signs of neurological disease.

40 Why do we have reflexes? Reflexes protect your body from things that can harm it. For example, if you put your hand on a hot stove, a reflex causes you to immediately remove your hand before a "Hey, this is hot!" message even gets to your brain Other examples of protective reflexes are blinking when something flies toward your eyes or raising your arm if a ball is thrown your way. Even coughing and sneezing are reflexes. They clear the airways of irritating things

41 What are the reasons for reflexes? Evolutionary Perspective? Survival Instinct? Reflexes take place without traveling from brain (motor neurons) to sensory neurons They use inter-neurons to communicate without direct motor neurons! How are reflexes different than reactions?

42 Common Reflexes Babinski (foot) Moro (startle Tonic (fencing) Rooting (sucking) Pupillary (eyes – constriction Or dilation) Galant (leaning against side of spine that is stroked)

43 Pupillary Response

44 Babinski Reflex Babinski's reflex occurs when the big toe moves toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked. This reflex, or sign, is normal in younger children, but abnormal after the age of 2 The presence of a Babinski's reflex after age 2 is a sign of damage to the nerve paths connecting the spinal cord and the brain

45 Babinski on Infant

46 Babinski Explanation

47 Moro Reflex It is normally present in all infants/newborns up to 4 or 5 months of age Absence indicates a profound disorder of the motor system. Persistence of the Moro response beyond 4 or 5 months of age is noted only in infants with severe neurological defects It is believed to be the only unlearned fear in human newborns

48 Moro

49 Tonic (Fencers) Reflex known as the “fencing reflex" because of the characteristic position of the infant's arms and head, which resembles that of a trained fencer. Beyond the first months of life may indicate that the child has developmental delays, at which point the reflex is atypical or abnormal. For example, in children with cerebral palsy the reflexes may persist and even be more pronounced.

50 Tonic

51 Knee Jerk or (DTR) reflex The reflex that the doctor checks by tapping your knee is called the patellar, or knee-jerk, reflex. It is also known as a deep tendon reflex (DTR) This tap stretches the tendon and the muscle in the thigh that connects to it.tendonmuscle A message then gets sent to the spinal cord that the muscle has been stretched.The spinal cord very quickly sends a message back to the muscle telling it to contract. The contraction of the muscle causes your lower leg to kick out.

52 Knee Jerk (Patellar) Reflex

53 Causes of Abnormal Knee Jerk Response Hyperactive (knee jerks too much): ALS, brain tumor, stroke, liver disease, hypocalcemia (low calcium), hypomagnesemia (low magnesium), hypothermia, multiple sclerosis, preeclampsia, spinal cord lesion and tetanus. Hypoactive (knee doesn't jerk enough): botulism, nerve inflammation, peripheral neuropathy, polio, untreated syphillis, diabetes, alcoholism, arthritis, etc.

54 Galant Reflex ://www.medicalvideos.eu/video/eb2712fc2af d7dd/Galant-Reflex--Clinical-Pediatrics ://www.medicalvideos.eu/video/eb2712fc2af d7dd/Galant-Reflex--Clinical-Pediatrics

55 Reflexes seizures & headaches? Migraines: blood vessel based, often preceded by signs Cluster: mostly male, one eye – occurs at intervals Tension: often frontal/occipital based – muscles Seizures: Grand Mal, Petit Mal, Idiopathic, Absence – often preceded by signs Types of reflexes: Knee Jerk, Babinski, Moro, Fencers (Tonic) Primitive reflexes in adulthood often sign of neurological disease Absence of reflexes in infancy – neurologicial problem Normal adult reflexes protect us. Migraines: blood vessel based, often preceded by signs Cluster: mostly male, one eye – occurs at intervals Tension: often frontal/occipital based – muscles Seizures: Grand Mal, Petit Mal, Idiopathic, Absence – often preceded by signs Types of reflexes: Knee Jerk, Babinski, Moro, Fencers (Tonic) Primitive reflexes in adulthood often sign of neurological disease Absence of reflexes in infancy – neurologicial problem Normal adult reflexes protect us.

56 What have we learned? Cerebral Cortex – covers your brain, gray matter Hemispheres-each half of the brain that has different roles. Hemisphere dominance is a theory…what do you think? Corpus Callosum: The Newburgh Beacon Bridge of the Interstate 84 of your brain Frontal Lobe: reasoning, higher level thought processes Parietal Lobe: motor strip, sensory strip Temporal Lobe: hearing, speech Occipital Lobe: sight Medulla: autonomic functions Cerebellum: balance, coordination Pons and RAS: sleep, recognition of faces Prefrontal lobe: seat of the soul, personal memories Cerebral Cortex – covers your brain, gray matter Hemispheres-each half of the brain that has different roles. Hemisphere dominance is a theory…what do you think? Corpus Callosum: The Newburgh Beacon Bridge of the Interstate 84 of your brain Frontal Lobe: reasoning, higher level thought processes Parietal Lobe: motor strip, sensory strip Temporal Lobe: hearing, speech Occipital Lobe: sight Medulla: autonomic functions Cerebellum: balance, coordination Pons and RAS: sleep, recognition of faces Prefrontal lobe: seat of the soul, personal memories

57 Lower brain: primitive reactions Midbrain: smell, emotion (limbic system) The blood brain barrier protects your brain from infection Myelin: fatty sheath that covers nerves similar to an electrical wire – lesions can cause neurological symptoms Right Brain/Left Brain Theory (R=holistic L= analytical Neurons: Motor = brain to body, Sensory = body to brain, Interneuron=connections between nerves, Receptors=receive neurotransmitter Lower brain: primitive reactions Midbrain: smell, emotion (limbic system) The blood brain barrier protects your brain from infection Myelin: fatty sheath that covers nerves similar to an electrical wire – lesions can cause neurological symptoms Right Brain/Left Brain Theory (R=holistic L= analytical Neurons: Motor = brain to body, Sensory = body to brain, Interneuron=connections between nerves, Receptors=receive neurotransmitter

58 Neurotransmitters: electrical/chemical messages passed along by neurons Serotonin: happy chemical Dopamine: movement Acetylcholine: sleep, attention Endorphins: natural morphine Types of reflexes: Knee Jerk, Babinski, Moro, Fencers (Tonic) Primitive reflexes in adulthood often sign of neurological disease Normal adult reflexes protect us. Neurotransmitters: electrical/chemical messages passed along by neurons Serotonin: happy chemical Dopamine: movement Acetylcholine: sleep, attention Endorphins: natural morphine Types of reflexes: Knee Jerk, Babinski, Moro, Fencers (Tonic) Primitive reflexes in adulthood often sign of neurological disease Normal adult reflexes protect us.


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