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Ch. 2 – Neuroscience. ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Today’s coming attractions How do you think? What.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 2 – Neuroscience. ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Today’s coming attractions How do you think? What."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 2 – Neuroscience

2 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Today’s coming attractions How do you think? What is a neuron? How do neurons communicate? How do we record the brain’s structure, function, and electrical activity?

3 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers How do neurons communicate? What is the relationship between psychology, biology, chemistry, and electricity? Movie DVD#1 Neural communication What do you think might occur if the transmission of neurotransmitters across the synapse was blocked? What if it was facilitated?

4 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers How do neurons communicate? Synaptic gap? Neurotransmitters –Endorphins –SSRI’s Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors For depression

5 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Neurotransmitters

6 If you touch a hot stove, what happens? Peripheral nervous system Central nervous system

7 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers The peripheral nervous system consists of: A. association areas. B. the spinal cord. C. the reticular formation. D. sensory and motor neurons.

8 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers If you see a rattlesnake, what happens? Sympathetic system Parasympathetic system

9 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers If the Dr. taps you on the knee, what is he testing for?

10 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers You want to record the brain’s electrical activity. What method would you use? EEG = Electroencephalogram What does it do?

11 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Name That Brain Damage Damage to certain areas of the brain can cause specific deficits in behavior. This activity links specific brain areas with their functions. Acknowledgements: This activity was written by Antoinette R. Miller, Clayton State University

12 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Overview of Brain Anatomy: (1) Lower Brain Structures [ “life support”] [ “life support” ] [sleep/wake] [sensation]

13 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Overview of Brain Anatomy: (2) Lower Brain Structures [coordination and balance]

14 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Overview of Brain Anatomy: (3) Lower Brain Structures { [hungerthirst body temperature body temperature sexual behavior] [anger and fear] [memory]

15 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Overview of Brain Anatomy: (4) Cerebral Cortex [vision][touch/sensation] [movement /speech (left)] [movement / speech (left)] [hearing; comprehension (left)]

16 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers What is a Lesion? Lesion = tissue destruction. Damage to a brain structure (or to multiple structures) may affect a person’s behavior or abilities. Damage may be deliberate (experimental) or accidental (head injury, stroke, etc.)

17 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Case Study 1: Patient JP suffered a minor stroke recently. Although he has recovered most of his function, he still is unable to speak clearly. He sounds stilted, and almost “Tarzan-like.” A. parietal lobe B. hippocampus C. cerebellum D. frontal lobe

18 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers A. occipital lobe B. spinal cord C. hippocampus D. reticular formation Case Study 2: Patient GN recently was struck in the head with a crowbar. Although her eyes were undamaged, she is now unable to see.

19 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Case Study 3: Patient AF is suffering from a brain tumor. As the tumor grows, he is becoming increasingly belligerent and aggressive. He also seems to have no fear when confronted with threats or danger. A. temporal lobe B. amygdala C. medulla D. cerebellum

20 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers A. pituitary gland B. spinal cord C. parietal lobe D. frontal lobe Case Study 4: Patient BB, ironically enough, has been shot in the head with a BB gun. The BB is now lodged in her brain, and she has lost feeling in her left hand.

21 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Case Study 5: Patient PD suffers from an extreme seizure disorder. Doctors have located the source of the seizures. To prevent PD’s death, they have surgically removed the affected area. While PD’s seizures have lessened considerably, he is now unable to form new memories. A. hippocampus B. occipital lobe C. thalamus D. frontal lobe

22 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers A. reticular formation B. amygdala C. temporal lobe D. Cerebellum Case Study 6: Patient FD has suffered a minor stroke. Now, she is extremely uncoordinated and seems to have completely lost her sense of balance.

23 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers A new superhero emerges on the scene. This superhero is able to stay awake and vigilant for extended amounts of time. He helps the intelligence community by being able to stay in surveillance for extended amounts of time without losing concentration and can always be paying attention to what is happening. A study of this superhero’s brain might show that the ____________ is more advanced and developed than a non-superhero’s. A. frontal lobe B. amygdala C. reticular formation D. occipital lobe

24 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers You are a neurologist in a large hospital. The wife of a construction worker visits you and describes that her husband has experienced a serious injury to his frontal lobe. She is perplexed by his behavior. Which of the following would you tell her is “normal behavior” for a person with frontal lobe damage? A. not much decline in memory or intelligence B. poor judgment C. irritability and other personality changes D. ALL of these are commonly seen in frontal lobe damage

25 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Which of the following activities is NOT primarily a function of the left hemisphere? A. listening to a piano concerto B. reading your psychology book C. reading junk mail D. listening to a poetry reading

26 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers As Allison reaches for a box in her garage, out jumps a big spider. Her heart immediately begins to race as she withdraws her hand, but soon she realizes that the spider is harmless, and she begins to calm down. Which part of her nervous system is responsible for brining her back to a normal state of arousal? A. sympathetic nervous system B. somatic nervous system C. parasympathetic nervous system D. skeletal nervous system

27 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers If Dr. Barnes wanted to cause a cat to take on an attack posture, which of the cat’s brain structures should he electrically stimulate? A. amygdala B. hypothalamus C. hippocampus D. cerebellum

28 ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Consider This… What other methods are available to researchers trying to link brain areas to functions? Do you think using studies of lesions’ effects on behavior is the most reliable method? Which brain area would you consider the most terrible to lose?


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