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Psychology 355 12 Memory Systems. Psychology 3552 Introduction I.Learning and remembering distinguishes naïve from mature brain II.Relationship between.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology 355 12 Memory Systems. Psychology 3552 Introduction I.Learning and remembering distinguishes naïve from mature brain II.Relationship between."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology Memory Systems

2 Psychology 3552 Introduction I.Learning and remembering distinguishes naïve from mature brain II.Relationship between visual development and learning A.Similar mechanisms in different cortical areas III.Memories range from stated facts to ingrained motor patterns IV.Anatomy: Several memory systems A.Evident from brain lesions

3 Psychology 3553 Learning & Memory Learning Acquisition of new information Memory Retention of learned information

4 Psychology 3554 Types of Memory I.Long-Term, Short-Term, and Working Memory Working memory: Active, Temporary information storage Sensory information Long-term memory Short-term memory Consolidation Sensory information Long-term memory Short-term memory Consolidation Time

5 Psychology 3555 Types of Memory: Long-Term Declarative memory (explicit) Facts and events Nondeclarative memory (implicit) Procedural memory- skills, habits, behaviors

6 Psychology 3556 Types of Memory and Amnesia Amnesia: Serious loss of memory and ability to learn Causes: Concussion, chronic alcoholism, encephalitis, hypoxia, brain tumor, or stroke A.Limited amnesia B.Dissociated amnesia: Amnesia, no other cognitive deficit (rare) C.Anterograde with Temporally-Graded Retrograde Amnesia D.Transient global amnesia:Caused by ischemic episode. Short duration Symptoms: Disoriented, ask same questions repeatedly; Attacks subside in couple of hours; Permanent memory gap

7 Psychology 3557 Types of Memory and Amnesia Memory loss related to time A.Retrograde amnesia Forget things you already knew B.Anterograde amnesia Inability to form new memories

8 Psychology 3558 Memory Storage

9 Psychology 3559 Memory Storage I.Hebb and the Cell Assembly A.External events are represented by cortical cells B.Cells reciprocally interconnected  reverberation C.Active neurons—cell assembly 1.Consolidation by “growth process” 2.“Fire together, wire together” D.Hebb and the engram 1.Widely distributed among linked cells in the assembly 2.Could involve neurons involved in sensation and perception

10 Psychology Memory Storage Hebb’s Cell Assembly and Memory Storage

11 Psychology Memory Storage Localization of Declarative Memories in the Neocortex A.Experiments—macaque monkeys 1.Differentiate objects based on shapes B.Lesion made in area IT 1.Cannot discriminate 2.Does not remember stimulus C.Studies in humans

12 Psychology Memory Storage Electrical Stimulation of the Human Temporal Lobes A.Penfield’s experiments 1.Electrical stimulation of the temporal lobe  Complex sensations B.Penfield’s patients: Sensations like hallucinations, recall past experiences C.Temporal lobe: Role in memory storage D.Temporal lobe stimulation 1.Different from stimulation of other areas of neocortex

13 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory Temporal Lobectomy

14 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory The Medial Temporal Lobes and Memory Processing

15 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory The Medial Temporal Lobes and Memory Processing

16 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory DNMS: Delayed non-match to sample

17 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory DNMS: Delayed non-match to sample

18 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory The Diencephalon & Memory Processing

19 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory The Diencephalon: Korsakoff’s Syndrome 1.Symptoms: Confusion, confabulations, severe memory impairment, and apathy A.Alcoholics: Develop thiamin deficiency 1.Leads to symptoms: Abnormal eye movements, loss of coordination, tremors B.Treatment: Supplemental thiamin 1.Thiamin deficiency: Structural brain damage

20 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory Role of the medial temporal lobes

21 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory Morris water maze

22 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory Relational memory: Spatial Navigation Extra-Maze Cues

23 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory Relational memory: Spatial Navigation

24 Psychology The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memory Relational memory: Transverse Patterning A>B B>C C>A Transitive Inference A>B B>C C>D D>E B?D

25 Psychology The Striatum & Procedural Memory I.Two elements of basal ganglia  Striatum A.Caudate nucleus B.Putamen II.Rodent Recordings and Lesions in the Striatum A.Lesions to striatum: Disrupts procedural memory B.Damaged hippocampal system: Degraded performance on standard maze task C.Lesion in striatum: Impaired performance of the light task; Double dissociation

26 Psychology The Striatum & Procedural Memory

27 Psychology Working Memory The Prefrontal Cortex and Working Memory Function of prefrontal cortex: self- awareness, capacity for planning and problem solving

28 Psychology Working Memory Imaging Working Memory in the Human Brain Numerous areas in prefrontal cortex are involved in working memory Face Only Face & Spatial Spatial Only

29 Psychology Working Memory Updating Perseveration

30 Psychology The Working Memory Lateral Intraparietal Cortex (Area LIP) and Working Memory : Guiding eye movements Delayed-saccade task

31 Psychology Concluding Remarks I.Learning and memory A.Occur throughout the brain II.Memories A.Duration, kind of information stored, and brain structures involved B.Distinct types of memory C.Different types of amnesia 1.Multiple brain systems for memory storage III.Engrams in temporal lobe neocortex A.Physiological basis? B.Long-term memories: structural basis?

32 Psychology 355 End of Presentation


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