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The “black box” brain What does our brain do? Moving Thinking Sensing Character Talking Non-conscious control Planning Calculating Remembering Co-ordination.

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Presentation on theme: "The “black box” brain What does our brain do? Moving Thinking Sensing Character Talking Non-conscious control Planning Calculating Remembering Co-ordination."— Presentation transcript:

1 The “black box” brain What does our brain do? Moving Thinking Sensing Character Talking Non-conscious control Planning Calculating Remembering Co-ordination

2 Biological Psychology Biological psychology BehaviourBrain and behaviour EthologyPsychopharmacology Animal learning theory Brain structure and function

3 Organisation of the mammalian nervous system Nervous system Peripheral NS Central NS Voluntary NS Sympathetic NS Autonomic NS Parasympathetic NS Spinal cord Brain Telencephalon Cortex & Diencephalon Forebrain Mesencephalon - Midbrain Rhombencephalon – Hindbrain } { Brain Telencephalon Cortex & Diencephalon Forebrain Mesencephalon - Midbrain Metencephalon - Pons, cerebellum Myelencephalon - Medulla } {

4 The divisions of the brain TelencephalonDiencephalonMesencephalonMetencephalonMyelencephalon CortexThalamusTectumPonsMedulla Basal gangliaHypothalamusTegmentumCerebellum Hippocampus Amygdala

5 Subcortical organisation Corpus Callosum Connection the two cortical hemispheres Hippocampus Learning & memory Basal ganglia Control of behavioural patterns Thalamus Interface between the cortex and the rest of the nervous system Hypothalamus Homeostasis, emotion Control of endocrine (hormone) system Brainstem Control of autonomic function Spinal cord Nerves going to and from the rest of the body Cerebellum Movement, balance, posture Cerebral Cortex

6 The lobes of the cerebral cortex Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Cerebellum Occipital lobe Parietal lobe Central Sulcus (or fissure) Lateral (Sylvian) fissure Precentral gyrus Postcentral gyrus

7 Comparative Brain Structure (cortical) Adult Cortex Surface brain as %Area weightBrain wt.(cm 2 ) Rat2316 Cat Chimpanzee420651,000 Human1,400802,500 Sulci (fissures) – infoldings of the surface Gyri – the bumps on the cortical surface

8 Understanding cortical function Brain damaged patients Assess cognitive deficit Locate area of brain damage (post-mortem, neuroimaging) Functional neuroimaging Functional MRI measurements during task performance Measure areas activated by different aspects of the task

9 Sensory areas of the cortex We will explore the visual system in more detail in lecture 4 Primary somatosensory cortex Somatosensory association cortex Primary visual cortex Visual association cortex Primary olfactory cortex Olfactory association cortex Multimodal association cortex Primary auditory cortex Auditory association cortex

10 Motor control We will explore motor control in more detail in lecture 5 Basal Ganglia Motor patterns Primary motor cortex Motor output to skeletal muscles Supplementary motor cortex Motor planning Cerebellum Motor coordination

11 Higher cognitive function (reasoning, personality, emotion, learning and memory) Frontal Cortex Calculation, Reasoning, Inference Rule learning Prefrontal cortex Personality, emotion Temporal Cortex Learning, Memory, Spatial recognition

12 The story of Phineas Gage Gage was a young railway construction supervisor in Vermont He was well liked, reliable, energetic and good at his job In September 1848, while preparing a powder charge for blasting a rock, he tamped a steel rod into charge-filled hole, without putting in wadding. The charge exploded and blew the rod out of the hole straight at Gage It entered his head through his left cheek, destroyed his eye, traversed the frontal part of the brain, and left the top of the skull at the other side. After the accident he became extravagant anti-social, foulmouthed, bad mannered and a liar: he could no longer hold a job or plan his future. He died in 1861, thirteen years after the a ccident, penniless and epileptic: no autopsy was performed on his brain. Tamping Iron dimensions : 1 meter in length, 2.5 cm diameter

13 Cortical areas controlling language We will explore language in more detail in lecture 6 Broca’s area Primary motor cortex Primary auditory cortex Primary visual cortex Arcuate fasciculusWernike’s area

14 Summary of cortical function Frontal lobe - Planning - Thinking - Motor planning - Motor output Temporal lobe - Hearing - Smell - Memory - Feelings Occipital lobe - Vision - Visual processing Parietal lobe - Spatial processing - Spatial orientation - Somatosensory function

15 Inter hemispheric communication the corpus callosum LeftRight Eye Visual Cortex Language Cortex Motor Cortex SPEECH Left hand Crossover outside brain Crossover outside brain BRAIN Information Transfer in a Normal Person LeftRight Eye Visual Cortex Language Cortex Motor Cortex SPEECH Left hand Crossover outside brain Crossover outside brain BRAIN Information Transfer in a "Split Brain" Patient C U T Corpus callosum : a large bundle of fibres connecting the left and right cortices

16 Studies on ‘split brain’ patients The word “ball” is presented in the left visual field only The subject is asked to say what it is ….. ….. and to select it from the objects behind the screen Unable to say what the object is because of the organisation of the visual pathway, only the right visual cortex receives information from the left visual field Can pick out the ball with his left hand, but not his right right somatosensory cortex (left hand) ‘knows what it is looking for’, but the left (right hand) does not Based on early work by Roger Sperry, for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1981 We will explore laterality in more detail in lecture 7

17 The cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves on the base of the brain, which pass through holes in the skull (cranium): analogous to spinal nerves leaving the spinal cord I - Olfactory II - Optic III- Occulomotor IV- Trochlear V- Trigeminal VI- Abducens VII- Facial VIII- Vestibulocochlear IX- Glossopharangeal X- Vagus XI- Spinal accessory XII- Hypoglossal

18 Functions of the cranial nerves I Olfactory : Smell II Optic : Vision III Occulomotor : Eye movement; Pupil dilation IV Trochlear :Eye movement V Trigeminal : SS information from the face and head; chewing muscles. VI Abducens : Eye Movement VII Facial :Taste (anterior 2/3 of tongue); SS from ear; muscles for facial expression. VIII Vestibulocochlear : Hearing; Balance IX Glossopharangeal : Taste (posterior 1/3 of tongue); SS from tongue, tonsil, pharynx; muscles for swallowing. X Vagus : Sensory, motor and autonomic functions of viscera (glands, digestion, heart rate) XI Spinal accessory : Controls muscles used in head movement. XII Hypoglossal : Controls muscles of tongue SS = somatosensory


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