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PS1003: Introduction to Biological Psychology

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Presentation on theme: "PS1003: Introduction to Biological Psychology"— Presentation transcript:

1 PS1003: Introduction to Biological Psychology
1 : Brain structure and function The “black box” brain What does our brain do? Character Co-ordination Non-conscious control Planning Calculating Remembering Thinking Talking Sensing Moving

2 Biological Psychology
Behaviour Brain and behaviour Ethology Psychopharmacology Animal learning theory Brain structure and function

3 Organisation of the mammalian nervous system
Voluntary NS Sympathetic NS Autonomic NS Parasympathetic NS Peripheral NS Nervous system Brain Telencephalon Cortex & Diencephalon Forebrain Mesencephalon - Midbrain Metencephalon - Pons, cerebellum Myelencephalon - Medulla } { Spinal cord Brain Central NS Telencephalon Cortex & Diencephalon Forebrain Mesencephalon Midbrain Rhombencephalon – Hindbrain } {

4 The divisions of the brain
Telencephalon Diencephalon Mesencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon Cortex Thalamus Tectum Pons Medulla Basal ganglia Hypothalamus Tegmentum Cerebellum Hippocampus Amygdala

5 Subcortical organisation
PS1003: Introduction to Biological Psychology 1 : Brain structure and function Subcortical organisation Cerebral Cortex Hippocampus Learning & memory Corpus Callosum Connection the two cortical hemispheres Cerebellum Movement, balance, posture Basal ganglia Control of behavioural patterns Brainstem Control of autonomic function Hypothalamus : Hunger, thirst, circadian rhythms, emotion, body temperature Brain stem : Breathing, heart rate blood pressure Thalamus Interface between the cortex and the rest of the nervous system Hypothalamus Homeostasis, emotion Control of endocrine (hormone) system Spinal cord Nerves going to and from the rest of the body

6 The lobes of the cerebral cortex
Precentral gyrus Postcentral gyrus Central Sulcus (or fissure) Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Occipital lobe Cerebellum Lateral (Sylvian) fissure Temporal lobe

7 Comparative Brain Structure (cortical)
Adult Cortex Surface brain as % Area weight Brain wt. (cm2) Rat Cat Chimpanzee ,000 Human 1, ,500 Sulci (fissures) – infoldings of the surface Gyri – the bumps on the cortical surface

8 Understanding cortical function
Brain damaged patients Assess cognitive deficit Locate area of brain damage (post-mortem, neuroimaging) Functional neuroimaging Functional MRI measurements during task performance Measure areas activated by different aspects of the task

9 Sensory areas of the cortex
Primary somatosensory cortex Somatosensory association cortex Multimodal association cortex Primary auditory cortex Auditory association cortex Primary visual cortex Visual association cortex Primary olfactory cortex Olfactory association cortex We will explore the visual system in more detail in lecture 4

10 We will explore motor control in more detail in lecture 5
Primary motor cortex Motor output to skeletal muscles Supplementary motor cortex Motor planning Basal Ganglia Motor patterns Cerebellum Motor coordination We will explore motor control in more detail in lecture 5

11 Higher cognitive function (reasoning, personality, emotion, learning and memory)
Frontal Cortex Calculation, Reasoning, Inference Rule learning Prefrontal cortex Personality, emotion Temporal Cortex Learning, Memory, Spatial recognition

12 The story of Phineas Gage
PS1003: Introduction to Biological Psychology 1 : Brain structure and function The story of Phineas Gage Gage was a young railway construction supervisor in Vermont He was well liked, reliable, energetic and good at his job In September 1848, while preparing a powder charge for blasting a rock, he tamped a steel rod into charge-filled hole, without putting in wadding. The charge exploded and blew the rod out of the hole straight at Gage It entered his head through his left cheek, destroyed his eye, traversed the frontal part of the brain, and left the top of the skull at the other side. After the accident he became extravagant anti-social, foulmouthed, bad mannered and a liar: he could no longer hold a job or plan his future.   He died in 1861, thirteen years after the a ccident, penniless and epileptic: no autopsy was performed on his brain. Tamping Iron dimensions : 1 meter in length, 2.5 cm diameter with 2.5 cm of diameter and more than one meter of lenght against his skull, at a high speed Gage lost consciousness immediately and started to have convulsions.

13 Cortical areas controlling language
We will explore language in more detail in lecture 6 Arcuate fasciculus Primary motor cortex Wernike’s area Broca’s area Primary auditory cortex Primary visual cortex

14 Summary of cortical function
Frontal lobe Planning Thinking Motor planning Motor output Parietal lobe Spatial processing Spatial orientation Somatosensory function Occipital lobe Vision Visual processing Temporal lobe Hearing Smell Memory Feelings

15 Inter hemispheric communication the corpus callosum
Corpus callosum : a large bundle of fibres connecting the left and right cortices Left Right Eye Visual Cortex Language Cortex Motor Cortex SPEECH Left hand Crossover outside brain BRAIN Information Transfer in a Normal Person "Split Brain" Patient C U T

16 Studies on ‘split brain’ patients
Based on early work by Roger Sperry, for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1981 The word “ball” is presented in the left visual field only The subject is asked to say what it is ….. ….. and to select it from the objects behind the screen Unable to say what the object is because of the organisation of the visual pathway, only the right visual cortex receives information from the left visual field We will explore laterality in more detail in lecture 7 Can pick out the ball with his left hand, but not his right right somatosensory cortex (left hand) ‘knows what it is looking for’, but the left (right hand) does not

17 The cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves on the base of the brain, which pass through holes in the skull (cranium): analogous to spinal nerves leaving the spinal cord I - Olfactory II - Optic III - Occulomotor IV - Trochlear V - Trigeminal VI - Abducens VII - Facial VIII - Vestibulocochlear IX - Glossopharangeal X - Vagus XI - Spinal accessory XII - Hypoglossal

18 Functions of the cranial nerves
PS1003: Introduction to Biological Psychology 1 : Brain structure and function Functions of the cranial nerves I Olfactory : Smell II Optic : Vision III Occulomotor : Eye movement; Pupil dilation IV Trochlear :Eye movement V Trigeminal : SS information from the face and head; chewing muscles. VI Abducens : Eye Movement VII Facial :Taste (anterior 2/3 of tongue); SS from ear; muscles for facial expression. VIII Vestibulocochlear : Hearing; Balance IX Glossopharangeal : Taste (posterior 1/3 of tongue); SS from tongue, tonsil, pharynx; muscles for swallowing. X Vagus : Sensory, motor and autonomic functions of viscera (glands, digestion, heart rate) XI Spinal accessory : Controls muscles used in head movement. XII Hypoglossal : Controls muscles of tongue SS = somatosensory The cranial nerves are composed of twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the brain.  In order reach their targets they must ultimately exit/enter the cranium through openings in the skull.  Hence, their name is derived from their association with the cranium.  The function of the cranial nerves is for the most part similar to the spinal nerves, the nerves that are associated with the spinal cord.  The motor components of the cranial nerves are derived from cells that are located in the brain.  These cells send their axons (bundles of axons outside the brain = a nerve) out of the cranium where they will ultimately control muscle (e.g., eye movements) , glandular tissue (e.g., salivary glands) or specialized muscle (e.g., heart or stomach). The sensory components of cranial nerves originate from collections of cells that are located outside the brain. These collections of nerve cells bodies are called  sensory ganglia. They are essentially the same functionally and anatomically as the dorsal root ganglia which are associated with the spinal cord.  In general, sensory ganglia of the cranial nerves send out a branch that divides into two branches: a branch that enters the brain and one that is connected to a sensory organ. Examples of sensory organs are pressure or pain sensors in the skin and more specialized ones such as taste receptors of the tongue. Electrical impulses are transmitted from the sensory organ through the ganglia and into the brain via the sensory branch that enter the brain.  There are two exceptions to this rule that should be noted when the special senses of smell and vision are discussed.  In summary, the motor components  of cranial nerves transmit nerve impulses from the brain to target tissue outside of the brain.  Sensory components transmit nerve impulses from sensory organs to the brain.


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