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Parietal Lobe. Superior and Inferior Aspects Superior BA 5 & 7 Inferior Inferior BA 39 & 40 BA 39 & 40.

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Presentation on theme: "Parietal Lobe. Superior and Inferior Aspects Superior BA 5 & 7 Inferior Inferior BA 39 & 40 BA 39 & 40."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parietal Lobe

2 Superior and Inferior Aspects Superior BA 5 & 7 Inferior Inferior BA 39 & 40 BA 39 & 40

3 Dorsal and Ventral Streams – Where and What

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5 Parietal Lobe Function 1. Somatosensory (anterior strip) 2. Visual guidance of movements (superior) 3. Spatial cognition and quasi-spatial processes like math and reading (inferior) 4. Selective attention – shifting attention, disengagement, recruitment, and release (cingulate too) 5. Polymodal integration 6. Disorders of visuospatial exploration 7. Anosognosia (unawareness or denial of illness)

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7 Defects of visuospatial exploration Displace visual attention Displace visual attention Inability to perceive more than one stimulus (simultagnosia = simultaneous agnosia) Inability to perceive more than one stimulus (simultagnosia = simultaneous agnosia) Defective visual control of movement (optic ataxia) Defective visual control of movement (optic ataxia) Inability to follow moving target Inability to follow moving target Inability to maintain fixation Inability to maintain fixation Inability to voluntarily direct gaze to target (gaze apraxia) Inability to voluntarily direct gaze to target (gaze apraxia) Abnormal visual search Abnormal visual search

8 Normal Optic Ataxia Optic Ataxia Posting performance Balint’s

9 Characteristics of Spatial Functions: modality-independent visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory stimuli all have spatial location information perception of location is an abstract concept located in a mental coordinate system loss of spatial function affects all modalities

10 Category Function Brain area 1) Spatial AttentionAttention to left hemispaceRight parietal Attention to right hemispaceLeft parietal 2) Spatial Perception Object Localization R&L occipital and parietal lobes Line orientation Right parietal 3) Spatial Construction Building with blocks; R&L parietal Drawing 4) Spatial mental Mental Rotation Right parietal operations Mental Imagery “posterior”

11 Visual Spatial Disorders Visual Spatial Disorders Visual Spatial Disorders range from basic visual sensory deficits to more abstract visual spatial disability. range from basic visual sensory deficits to more abstract visual spatial disability. Spatial Localization Spatial Localization great difficulty localizing objects in two and three dimensional space. Stereopsis (binocular depth perception) is often impaired. great difficulty localizing objects in two and three dimensional space. Stereopsis (binocular depth perception) is often impaired. Topographical Disorientation Topographical Disorientation Errors in forming spatial maps and using them to find places or solve topographical problems Errors in forming spatial maps and using them to find places or solve topographical problems Visual Spatial Construction Visual Spatial Construction difficulty with drawing and assembling 2D or 3D objects. difficulty with drawing and assembling 2D or 3D objects. Assessment Assessment Asked to draw simple figures, such as a flower, square or the face of a clock. Asked to draw simple figures, such as a flower, square or the face of a clock. Pencil-and-paper mazes Pencil-and-paper mazes Block design Block design Line orientation test Line orientation test

12 Body Schema Disturbance Finger Agnosia Finger Agnosia patients cannot identify their own fingers or those of another person. patients cannot identify their own fingers or those of another person. Right-Left Disorientation Right-Left Disorientation Lesions of the left parietal lobe commonly result in right- left disorientation. Lesions of the left parietal lobe commonly result in right- left disorientation. Assessment Assessment Autopagnosia Have patient point to own body parts and those on others Autopagnosia Have patient point to own body parts and those on others Finger Agnosia Have patient close their eyes and indicate which of their fingers has just been touched. Finger Agnosia Have patient close their eyes and indicate which of their fingers has just been touched.

13 Newberg et al (2001) Used SPECT neuroimaging to scan eight experience Tibetan Buddhist meditators. Increased activation Decreased activation

14 Body schema attenuated thru Meditation

15 Blanke et al (2002) Stimulation of the right angular gyrus caused reliable out of body experiences. Further evidence for the role of the parietal cortex in meditating self - other boundaries.

16 Neglect Syndrome (a.k.a Hemi-neglect) Fails to respond to meaningful stimuli presented to side opposite brain lesion (contralateral space) Fails to respond to meaningful stimuli presented to side opposite brain lesion (contralateral space) Ignores people on one side of room; eats from only one side of plate; draws half of an object, grooms half their body. But can adapt by learning to turn plate; to turn head; to move objects across visual field. Not due to motor defects Not due to motor defects Occurs in 30-90% Right hemisphere damaged patients (RHD), depending on type of patient (tumor, injury, etc) and type of test 2-15% Left hemisphere damage (LHD) Right Parietal Stroke – recovery at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 9 months Right Parietal Stroke – recovery at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 9 months

17 LLLLine Bisection Test ((((similar to item cancellation, every “e”)

18 Fellini’s Right Parietal Stroke

19 Drawings by Neglect Patients

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24 Pseudo-neglect Which appears darker? Which appears darker?

25 Pseudo-neglect Normals overattend to the LVF? Normals overattend to the LVF?

26 Neglect according to Kinsbourne’s hypothesis Hemispheres normally compete for attentional control. Hemispheres normally compete for attentional control. With damage, intact hemisphere dominates. With damage, intact hemisphere dominates. A release sign or positive symptom: left neglect involves “over attending” to the right. A release sign or positive symptom: left neglect involves “over attending” to the right.

27 Two mechanisms for Visual Field processing problem

28 Hemianopia

29 Evidence of implicit recognition House on fire example House on fire example Which house do you prefer?Which house do you prefer? Unconscious perception of left side of spaceUnconscious perception of left side of space

30 Maintainence of Syntactical Space

31 Visuoconstructive – e.g., Block Design Visuoconstructive – e.g., Block Design

32 Visuoconstructive – e.g., Picture Assembly Visuoconstructive – e.g., Picture Assembly

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35 Acalculia: Inability to perform mathematical computations.

36 Apraxia Difficulty in sequencing & executing movements Difficulty in sequencing & executing movements

37 Limb Apraxia Characterized by Characterized by movement of the wrong part of the limbmovement of the wrong part of the limb incorrect movement of the correct part, orincorrect movement of the correct part, or correct movements but in the incorrect sequence.correct movements but in the incorrect sequence. Often assessed by requesting patient to demonstrate the use of a tool or household implement (e.g., "Show me how to cut with scissors"). Often assessed by requesting patient to demonstrate the use of a tool or household implement (e.g., "Show me how to cut with scissors").

38 Buccofacial Apraxia Buccofacial Apraxia Difficulty performing skilled movements with lips, face, tongue, larynx, and pharynx.Difficulty performing skilled movements with lips, face, tongue, larynx, and pharynx. E.g., when asked to blow out a match, suck on a straw or blow a kiss, s/he unable to make the movements or makes uncoordinated movements. E.g., when asked to blow out a match, suck on a straw or blow a kiss, s/he unable to make the movements or makes uncoordinated movements. S/he may substitute incorrect movements or perseverate, or substitute verbal expressions for the movement. (e.g., when asked to blow out a match, the patient might say "Blow“). S/he may substitute incorrect movements or perseverate, or substitute verbal expressions for the movement. (e.g., when asked to blow out a match, the patient might say "Blow“).

39 Normal scan path Gaze apraxic scan path

40 Back and forth between two points Outlining the Perimeter of a rectangle

41 Patient with constructional apraxia due to lesion of the right parietal lobe. Patient with constructional apraxia due to lesion of the right parietal lobe.

42 Ideational Apraxia Ideational Apraxia Cannot perform a series of acts although able to perform individual components of the series. May correctly perform each step (say, in making coffee but out of order, such as turning coffee maker on first).Cannot perform a series of acts although able to perform individual components of the series. May correctly perform each step (say, in making coffee but out of order, such as turning coffee maker on first). Loss of conceptual knowledge associated with objects and overall goal of the activity sequence. Loss of conceptual knowledge associated with objects and overall goal of the activity sequence. not localized, often observed in dementia. not localized, often observed in dementia.

43 Movement Disorders

44 Movement Disorders (HD, PD)

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