Ulyana B. Lushchyk, MD, PhD, DSc firstname.lastname@example.org www.lushchyk.org www.istyna.kiev.ua Coauthors: Prof. V.V. Novytskyy, I.P. Babii, N.G. Lushchyk
Brain is 1.The portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that is enclosed within the cranium, continuous with the spinal cord, and composed of gray matter and white matter. It is the primary center for the regulation and control of bodily activities, receiving and interpreting sensory impulses, and transmitting information to the muscles and body organs. It is also the seat of consciousness, thought, memory, and emotion. The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech 2. Intellectual power; intelligence
Structurally: jelly-like structured hydrophilic mass ventricular system as reservoirs for liquid blood supply system hematoencephalic barrier high differentiation of white and gray matter closed rigid cranium a system of active bioelectrical conduction myelin membranes of nerves as protectors of the direct and tangent electrical insulation Brain is
Functionally: a black box for collection, processing and decision making information gathering by conductive ways, sensory systems information processing at the level of conditional and unconditional reflexes level of information processing - spinal and cerebral decision making - motor system analysis and synthesis of generalized information from various sensors collecting and archiving information ability to self-starting on primitive level and the necessity in society for further development ability to teach the system: the experience borrowing and applied uses of the experience, gained practical skills ability to self-development and creativity at some point of the accumulation of knowledge and experience Brain is
Brain like a model: a complex biological object with properties that are intrinsic only to him: plasticity, adaptogenity, moderate inertia harmonic orchestra with many members, who are playing professionally, simultaneously and in unison The brain should be considered as a neural network at the current stage of the science development (nerves, nerve stems, conductive ways, spinal cord and brain).
The brain is a Commander-in-Chief of the whole organism
Brain and body The brain could not function separately from the body since it loses sense of its existence The body provides continuous blood supply and feeding for the brain, and a feedback system The body requires the brain as a control system
Models for brain functioning Primitive (minimal brain function): Movement available, but uncontrollable Organs of senses function independently (sight, hearing, touch, smell?, taste?) No speech and walking Vestibular apparatus and the system of coordination are not functioning High defenselessness of the system (no thermoregulation, adaptability, high level of sleepiness as a variant of rapid exhaustion and necessity in information processing) Primitive emotions: smile, cry Unmanageable functions of pelvic organs
Models for brain functioning A model of the body self-serving (a 1-year child): Establishing self-control and self-regulation of systems of the individual physical activity: walking, movement coordination, feeding, stool, urination, primitive language and emotions Primary synchronizing reactions (Joy - hops, laughs, claps: falls - pain, fear, mourning, needs for compassion) The need in formation of external virtual neuronetwork for development of neurosensory systems Change of conditioned reflexes into unconditional acquired skills (bitter, pain, education of society) Society is necessary for further development (the Mowgli’s phenomenon)
Models for brain functioning A model of knowledge and experience acquirement Physical body continues to develop and grow, gradually adapting its vascular, endocrine, bone-and-muscular and nervous systems to new conditions of the existence (an effect of a scale) Formation of reactivity of these systems depending on physical loadings Search for algorithms of emotional exit (processing and reconsideration of stress situations) Appearance and further development of short- and long-term memory Dominant cognitive activity - the brain learns! - neuronetworks are trained and formed The first independent management decisions of the brain
Models for brain functioning Creative brain: (20-50 years) Harmonious functioning of the whole brain Harmonious functioning of the neuronetwork (synchronization, synergy, speed of operation) Formation and implementation of new ideas Keeping stable balance (body-brain, arteriovenous- hydrodynamic, energy-neurodynamic, intellectual-physical) External level of communication holds some neuronetworks in active state (professional memory)
Models for brain functioning aging brain: A gradual decline in the level of blood and energy supply for the body on the whole and for the brain in particular. Professional memory dominates over the everyday, low adaptability to unforeseen events, worsening of short-term memory. The intensification of all negative character traits as a reduction in braking effect of the cerebral cortex. When restoring the blood supply for the brain there is a spontaneous recollection of student skills and abilities. Psychosomatic disorders in case of loss of orientation in the life Physical illnesses as the system self-destruction when the brain loses the interest to the life – “blocking the future”.
Levels of the brain organization: 1. Macro-microlevel macrolevel - gross structural elements of the brain - convolutions, ventricles, cerebellum, etc. - that are visible to the naked eye on CT, MRI microlevel - microsections- static images of a pathohistological picture At the current stage of development there are no any algorithms for diagnostics, imaging and global analysisof neuronetworks. There are theoretical mathematical models for neurointelligence that can not be yet confirmed lifetime and experimentally.
Levels of the brain organization: 2. Hierarchical level There is an accurate system of subordination in the neuronetwork. The brain is in the upper rank of the hierarchy The spinal cord is responsible for somatic state, functioning of organs and systems, with sympathic-parasympathetic vegetative neuronetwork. All vitally important reactions and reflexes are locked at the spinal cord.
The known brain: Science, that are studying the brain - neurology, psychiatry, neurophysiology, cybernetics, psychology There is a selective view to the brain depending on the angle of a discipline A rough structural static approach at the macro level dominates (CT-MRI) for the brain examination Any visual brain pathology is regarded as a gross defect in the system.
Conclusion: Lack of a generalized view to the entire brain and its functioning Lack of view to the dynamics of the brain as a living system in short and long period of time Lack of options for modeling of the pathological brain We know almost nothing and not able to identify neuronetworks of the living brain
The known brain but: Movement: short-term preservation of a walking function after traumatic injury of the spinal cord (car accident) appearance of the first movement in paralyzed limbs of a comatose patient during his sleep renewal of movements in limbs at a stroke - from large to small joints, with apallic syndrome - on the contrary
The known brain but: Sensitive area: A patient in coma can "hear" and remember emotional language, perhaps emotional "message" and somatically responses Schizophrenia patients almost are not able to feel their own body and are emotionally vain The pain system, except for the signal, can be used as a training The system of deep sense requires constant presence of gravitational forces Vibratory feeling are not used in particular, but with multiple sclerosis, it is the first to suffer.
The known brain but: Violation of the structural integrity of the brain: Wonders with a perforating brain injury (by a spear, bullets, etc.) A structurally defective brain with preservation of all its functions Slowly growing brain tumor without neurological deficit with primary signs of inertial thinking and character changes. Neurological deficit occurs catastrophically. Multiple sclerosis - presence of demyelination foci and intermittent neurological symptoms A phenomenon of a neurosurgical intervention and preservation of existing functional relationships Phantom pain in a stump after amputation of a limb
The known brain but: A phenomenon of resection of the injured left frontal lobe of the brain – right-sided hemiplegia, aphasia, retrograde amnesia (loss of the memory of the past 30 years), imperative urge to urination, subconscious engagement of a paralyzed hand to hold a baby, actual thinking, lack of the frontal psyche, language restoration via English-speaking, ability to learn and self-control overcoming disorientation in time and space, keeping professional memory
The known brain but: A phenomenon of early traumatic or inflammatory lesions of the brain at the stage of primitive brain loss of all acquired brain functions absence of primary visual and auditory reactions expressed generalized movement phenomena arrest in somatic and mental development lack of cognitive function of the brain expressed defencelessness and attachment to the mother with unconscious feeling of comfort from inaction and formation of benefits from the disability status with minimal launching of brain functions - the tricks to avoid mental exertion take the first place
The unknown brain: According to the neuronetworks functioning Energy balancing of energy supply and energy consumption Adequate blood supply in accordance with functional needs (blood supply in rest, with physical and mental loads) Microcirculation in the cerebral cortex as a cause of higher cortical dysfunction Priority criteria for making managerial decisions (a great deed or an affect of Matrosov, Pavlik Morozov) Brain and mental development
Brain pathology according to the systemic approach Autism - priorities of internal feedback over external, lack of startup of the external communication system Epilepsy – a combination of deregulation in vascular, energy, neurodynamic and hydrodynamic systems on macro and microlevels, which causes loss of connections between subsystems and consequently chaotic and not always adequate for decision making. Hyperbolized and inadequate feedback from the environment. A model of sudden structural brain lesions: Loss of communication in neuronetworks Transition to economic energetic mode
Brain pathology according to the systemic approach Shocking brain - pathological impulsion about disorders, loss of effective algorithms for realization of organizational decisions, the need in accumulation of resources, chaotic somatic reactions of the body (unbalanced pressure, pulse, breathing, digestive system with expressed cachexia, diarrhea as a phenomenon of nondigestible food and others). Stabilization of the somatic status with restoration of reliable activity of vital organs Blood circulation centralization becomes the partial restoration of regional hemodynamics Minimum blood supply for the brain enables to launch minimal deep brain functions And then the society is necessary for artificial imposing of algorithms of the body recovery Acquiring knowledge, experience, skills, character traits may remain in the memory of the brain Thus, the injured brain is a chaos and unpredictability of decisions in neuronetworks.
Brain is: A model of a cyberglobe that is filled with vascular and neural network, placed in a rigid cranium, filled for amortization and rapid stabilization with jelly-like substance and the ventricular system (upper hemisphere) and diffusely dispersed throughout the body (a prototype of the lower hemisphere) with the ultimate peripheral indicators - receptors and capillaries.
An example of successful treatment a patient with brain pathology in the Clinic of Ulyana Lushchyk Nastya B., born in 27.02.2008 Diagnosis: Arrest of physical and mental development. Anamnesis: The day after her birth a child was found cytomegalovirus infection. The disease progressed mainly due to neurological symptoms. Convulsive syndrome. Beginning of the treatment: from February to April 2010, 2 treatment courses and rehabilitation have been held.
The dynamics а) neurologically: before treatment - congenital microcephalia due to fetal cytomegalovirus infection with defect of the brain development (ventriculo dilatation, hypogenesia of the callosum, anomaly of neuronal migration violation periventricularly) as expressed spastic tetraparesis, more right-sided by hemitype, convulsive syndrome in the anamnesis, deep arrest of psycho-speech and stato-kinetic development.
The dynamics Neurologically after 1 st course of treatment – it has been achieved oculomotor activation, improvement of physiological reflexes, appearance of signs of auditory and visual attention concentration, reducing of intensity of unbalanced reflexes, diffuse decrease in muscle tone, especially in the distal parts of upper limbs, significant decrease of convulsive patterns, restoration of the balance in the vegetative nervous system, the appearance of the cervical chain reflex, crawling movements in her legs, holding head for 5 seconds when sitting, increase of the amplitude and physiologic nature of walking reflex in her feet.
Neurologically During two intensive complex treatment courses it has been achieved the involving of interneuronal links of subcortical auditory, visual nuclei and motor cortex area of the left cerebral hemispheres as primary auditory and visual reflex, conscious movement of the right hand and making finger grip subjects. There is reduction of muscle spasticity, more in the legs, holding head maximum for17 seconds when sitting, response activation of paravertebral muscle to stimulation of motor points, reduction of dystonia by spastic type of axial muscles to the right, strengthening of the Galant reflex on both sides, further formation of the walking reflex. The dynamics
b) hemodynamically: before treatment - negative dynamics of intracranial blood flow in a form of reduction of cerebral tissue perfusion and deterioration of visualization of the Willis’s circle and proximal sections of ACA, MCA and PCA due to expressed angiospasm. Signs of intracranial hypertension in ACF at the level of DAP. After 2 courses of treatment – in the dynamics of the treatment there is further reconstruction of intracranial hemodynamics as a reduction of intracranial hydrodynamic conflict, reduce of the size of ventricles to 0,63-0,65 in the front horns and at the level of bodies close to 1 cm. There are signs of increase of venous hypertension in projections of both IJV, more expressed on the right. Blood flow in both projections of vertebral arteries has a tendency to normalization. Moderately expressed patterns of angiospasm remain in the projection of both carotid arteries. In general there is improvement of hemodynamic patterns of cerebral blood supply after intravenous injections and improve of the overall somatic status, skin color is more natural. The hyrudotherapy has been prescribed. She stood it satisfactorily.
b) hemodynamically: During 2 treatment courses it is improvement of pumping function of the left and right myocardium sections, but hemodynamic parameters still unstable, significantly lower, angiospasm of PCA prevails bilaterally and expressed ischemization of the brain mostly on the background of angiospasms of cerebral arteries and small-caliber type of angioarchitectonics. c) psychologically: before treatment - arrest of psycho-speech development on the backdrop of somatic diseases. Primary signs of memory are present. after treatment – it has been achieved periodic disclosure of hands with opposing her thumb. The girl periodically follows a subject both flowingly and gradually. Also there is a concentration of attention and interest in new subjects. An explicit response to mood of her mothers, recognizes familiar people. The dynamics
d) state of microcirculation: before treatment – very expressed pathological signs of microcirculation by stasis type. Expressed perivascular swelling. Revealed violations of capillary blood flow is characteristic to apallic syndrome. After 1 st course – single focal stasis are absent, blood flow has been accelerated, spasm of arterioles has decreased, lack of deficit of blood filling of the precapillary. After 2 nd course – there is a normalization of blood flow level and rheological properties of blood, perivascular swelling angiospastic reaction of the arteriolar link have decreased.