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Phineas P. Gage25 years old Excellent workerLoving father Faithful husbandMorally straight Spiritually soundCharacter upright Until September 13, 1848.

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Presentation on theme: "Phineas P. Gage25 years old Excellent workerLoving father Faithful husbandMorally straight Spiritually soundCharacter upright Until September 13, 1848."— Presentation transcript:


2 Phineas P. Gage25 years old Excellent workerLoving father Faithful husbandMorally straight Spiritually soundCharacter upright Until September 13, 1848

3 The 13 pound, three foot long, one inch thick steel bar entered just below the left cheek bone, passed behind the left eye, and exited the top of the head a few inches past the hair line.

4 The frontal lobe is the seat of judgment, reasoning, intellect, will. Brain, Oct 1990 The Frontal Lobes, Raven Press, 1986 The Frontal Lobes, Hafner Publishing, 1966

5 Impairment of moral principle Social impairment (loss of love for family) Lack of foresight Incapable of abstract reasoning Cannot interpret proverbs Diminished ability for mathematical understanding Loss of empathy Lack of restraint (boasting, hostility, aggressiveness)

6 Temper outbursts when frustrated Verbally and physically abusive in an abrupt, unpredictable, and short-lived manner Sexually promiscuous from early teens No sustained friendships Intermittent heavy user of alcohol and marijuana Impulsively attempted suicide twice

7 “As the child developed, she…” Did not respond to parental discipline Always sought gratification of her immediate needs Never developed adequate friendships Blamed her difficulties on others

8 Cerebellum - Coordination, balance Occipital - Vision Parietal - Touch interpretation, body position, sensory center Temporal - Hearing, speech, memory-

9 Percentage of brain in frontal lobe Comparative frontal lobe sizes

10 Sugar and the frontal lobe Large amounts of sugar in the diet have been demonstrated to impair frontal lobe functions in school age children.

11 Hot dogs Tossed salad Spaghetti Meat balls Green beans Doughnuts Sweet rolls Apple pie Cheese Garlic bread Chocolate cake Candy bars Cookies Mustard Pickle relish Coffee Soft drinks Spices Typical Teenage Diet 10% Alcohol vs. Water 52.9%

12 Purina Lab Chow 18% 2.7% Vegetarian Diet

13 Diet/Behavior Connection How can we secure depression, nightmares, mental lapses, fatigue, and violent mood swings? According to psychologist Barbara Reed’s research, one cure was found: Omit... Sugary junk foods Coffee and its relatives Refined carbohydrates

14 The Tidewater Study After removing sugary junk foods: 82% reduction in assaults 77% reduction in thefts 65% reduction in malicious horseplay 55% reduction in refusal to obey orders

15 Meat and intelligence “…Eating much flesh will diminish intellectual activity. Students would accomplish much more in their studies if they never tasted meat. When the animal part of the human nature is strengthened by meat- eating, the intellectual power diminishes proportionately.”

16 Drugs damaging the frontal lobe illicit drugs certain prescription drugs other legal social drugs: –alcohol –caffeine –nicotine

17 Drugs affecting the mind Asthma medications Blood pressure medications - beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, centrally acting agents Tranquilizers and sleeping pills Anti-ulcer pills - Tagamet, Zantac Anti-inflammatory drugs - NSAIDS Pain relievers, narcotics Cold and allergy medications - antihistamines, decongestants

18 Caffeine impairs the brain eight ways Produces dependence Causes drug withdrawal Can worsen psychiatric illnesses Impairs physical and mental performance Interferes with sleep Threshold to other illnesses that can adversely effect frontal lobe Can cause spiritual and social impact Can cause toxicity and even death

19 Caffeine is the most commonly used psychoactive substance, used by approximately 80 percent of the human population. Caffeine intake has been found to carry an increased risk of: osteoporosis breast cancer fibrocystic breast disease endometriosis peptic ulcer bladder disease nervousness infertility hypertension headaches depression stressGERD insomnia Low levels of iron, copper, zinc strokes poor job performance H. pylori infections...and many other problems. In 1996 it was reported that caffeine is also responsible for reducing estrogen and/or testosterone levels, in both instances the amount of available hormone was reduced. Apparently caffeine works to bind sex hormones. American Journal of Epidemiology 144:642;1996 Science News 145 (Jan.22):61,1994

20 Withdrawal from Coffee: Keep a cup of coffee in the refrigerator for the person who is withdrawing from coffee. If a headache begins or nervousness or any other symptom, a tablespoonful of the coffee taken will often be adequate to stop the symptom in its tracks.

21 Coffee, Tea, Cola Linked to SIDS. Pregnant women drinking four or more cups of coffee a day are potentially putting their babies’ lives at risk, warns research published in the Archives of Disease in Childhood, a British medical journal.

22 Brain power Use it or lose it Activities that strengthen the mind: Studying the Bible Playing bridge Crossword puzzles Activities that weaken the mind: Bingo - “it kills the mind” Television - “the worse thing that could be done is sit and watch television.”


24  If you think about the faults of others you will become just like they are. If you dwell upon the lovely character of Christ you will become like Him. Either Good or Bad Law of the Mind “You may not be what you think you are; but what you think, you are.” II Cor. 3:18

25 Television Damage Hypnotic bypassing of judgment centerHypnotic bypassing of judgment center Reduced learning, discrimination, sharpnessReduced learning, discrimination, sharpness Encourages poor lifestyle habits and obesityEncourages poor lifestyle habits and obesity Fosters violence, aggressiveness, irritabilityFosters violence, aggressiveness, irritability Pushes sex, daydreaming, teen rebellionPushes sex, daydreaming, teen rebellion Weakens creativityWeakens creativity Reduces time for family, noble projectsReduces time for family, noble projects

26  Viewing TV violence at age 8 in boys significantly predicts the seriousness of crimes for which they are convicted by age 30.  Up to 34% of felons report having consciously imitated crime techniques learned from TV.  Aggression also increases in late teens and adults with TV viewing.  TV is responsible for half of the current number of homicides, rapes, and assaults in the U.S.

27 Massive Crime Rates Due to TV  10,000 fewer homicides  70,000 fewer rapes  700,000 fewer injurious assaults The annual crime rate in the US would be lowered as follows if there were no TV:

28 If you are watching television, you are mindlessly soaking up a series of fantastic images. Science News Vol. 126:173 September 15, 1984

29 Within Two Years After Introduction of TV in Notel… Hitting, shoving, and biting increased 160% in 1st and 2nd graders. Violent crime had a spectacular increase, especially among the young. Increased sedatives in hospital wards Study done in Notel, Canada

30 Violence Caused by Access to TV South Africa In the 30 years before TV was introduced, homicide rate decreased 7% Homicide jumped 130% in the 12 year period after TV was introduced (75-87) Greater than the jump occurring in U.S. 12 years after TV introduced (45-57)

31 Generation X, Moral Issues, and Violence 75% of adults and teens reject the concept of absolute moral truth. Over half of teenagers say that lying is sometimes necessary. Young people today look at suicide as a viable option and a rational choice depending on circumstances.

32 Infants can’t judge behaviors they see so imitate indiscriminately. At 14 months, infants imitate what they see on TV. TV Harms Children U.S. children, ages 2 to 5, watch about 27 hours of TV/week. They can’t distinguish between fact and fantasy even when coached to do so.

33 TV’s Effects on Teens Less interest in reading and learning Poor health habits Poor attitudes Earlier and increased sexual activity

34 Movies both reflect and create social conditions, but their special charm is to offer a world where people consume without the tedium of labor. Characters float in a world where the bill never comes due...and we wonder why we are a debtor nation! Molly Haskell in Consuming Desires


36 Music and the Frontal Lobe Music enters the brain through its emotional regions (temporal & limbic) From there, music produces a frontal lobe response influencing the will, moral worth, reasoning power, good or bad. Some produces large emotional responses with little moral or logical interpretation.

37 Music directly represents the passions...of the soul--gentleness, anger, courage, temperance, and their opposites and other qualities; hence, when one listens to music that imitates a certain passion he becomes imbued with the same passion; and if over a long time he habitually listens to the same kind of music that rouses ignoble passions his whole character will be shaped to an ignoble form. In short, if one listens to the wrong kind of music he will become the wrong kind of person; but, conversely, if he listens to the right kind of music he will tend to become the right kind of person. Aristotle

38 usic therapists tell us that certain types of music, such as rock with its syncopated rhythm, bypass the frontal lobe and thus escape our ability to reason and make judgments about it. Evidence suggests that it, like television, can produce a hypnotic effect. Neil Nedley, M.D., Proof Positive M

39 Of Mice and Music #1 - Rock-like disharmonic drum beats #2 - Classical music #3 - No music Day 1 -- equal Week 8 Group 1 groping; 2&3, no problem 3 week break Group 1 still groping; 2&3, still no problem

40 The researchers concluded that the culprit causing the memory and learning problems was the music’s rhythm, not its harmonic or melodic structure.

41 Certain musical rhythms help to synchronize natural biological rhythms, while others disrupt body rhythms. If these natural rhythms are disrupted by some kind of disharmony, detrimental effects can result, including permanent learning difficulties. Music Effects

42 This could explain why rock music listeners are more prone to use drugs and engage in extramarital sex, and why heavy metal listeners are much more likely to consider suicide. Music Effects

43 Mozart and Children Subjects: Children aged 3-5 years Study: 8 months of group singing and keyboard lessons Results: Scored significantly higher on the “object assembly” task when compared to children in the same pre-school who did not receive music lessons.

44 Rhythm caused the learning and memory problems Disharmonic rock-like music caused damage to the hippocampus It also caused dulling of the frontal lobe


46 Do Competitive Sports Build Character? 1,600 male high school seniors were analyzed as to the effect of participation in varsity sports. The effects: Increased aggression Increased irritability Reduced honesty Decreased self-control Decreased independence Slight increase in self-esteem

47 Effect of Soccer “World Series” on Children Effect of Soccer “World Series” on Children 1. Quarreling occurred on a regular basis; even a fist fight broke out. 2. Crying occurred on several occasions, generally in the context of perceived failure or injustice. 3. Rivalry with other children increased. 4. Altruism significantly decreased. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1981;3;114-122

48 Competitve exercise reduces natural killer cells and increases the prevalence of infection. Physician and Sports Medicine, 27(6):47;1999

49 What to Do?

50 Self-Improvement Activities Learn geography, science, math, or art Spend more time helping others Learn a musical skill Visit the library Develop hobbies and related skills Learn how to cook or bake

51 Caring for the Frontal Lobe Protect it from mechanical injuryProtect it from mechanical injury Give it plenty of oxygenGive it plenty of oxygen Give it good nutrition; GIGOGive it good nutrition; GIGO Get plenty of sunshineGet plenty of sunshine Give it plenty of exerciseGive it plenty of exercise Guard the avenues to the brainGuard the avenues to the brain

52 The Bible Builds the Brain “The Bible, just as it reads, is to be our guide.” “Nothing is so calculated to enlarge the mind and strengthen the intellect as the study of the Bible.”

53 The Bible Builds the Brain “No other study will so elevate the soul and give vigor to the faculties as the study of the living oracles…”

54 The Bible Builds the Brain “As the mind is brought to the study of God’s Word, the understanding will enlarge and the higher powers will develop for the comprehension of high and ennobling truth.”

55 The way to maintain your brain Recent breakthroughs in understanding how the brain works show that our brains can still develop as we mature and that new brain cells are being created throughout our lives. The key to encouraging the growth is keeping the mind active.

56 New growth in brain cells and in the connections between the cells (called dendrites) seems to be encouraged by: learning, experience, and interaction with other people.

57 And they shall see His face; and His name shall be in their foreheads. Revelation 22:4

58 Sudden infant death syndrome — cot death of SIDS as it is also known — was twice as likely to occur among babies whose mothers drank a lot of coffee, tea, or cola every day throughout pregnancy, research has found. Caffeine intake has also been associated with low birth weight, miscarriage, and withdrawal symptoms in the baby, including breathing difficulties. “The importance of this finding,” say the authors, “is that drinking coffee, tea, and cola is a common and easily modifiable behavior. Mothers, therefore, have the opportunity to alter this risk factor.” Long before the results of coffee drinking could be measured, at four or more cups, even at one cup a day, there are subtle changes in the unborn baby.

59 Value of protecting the frontal lobe Improve performance in school and workImprove performance in school and work Develop better social skillsDevelop better social skills Become more responsible parents, workersBecome more responsible parents, workers

60 Compromised Frontal Lobes Memory impairment (especially short term) Easily distracted and restless Lives in fantasy land, emotionally unstable Lacks initiative; Who cares? Cares little for self; the life of the party

61 Frontal Lobe Diseases Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Mania Appetite increase Depression Obsessive compulsive disorder

62 T V’s Negative Effects on Children 27 lost hours per week Difficulty telling fact from fiction even when coached Increases in play their aggressiveness 160% in two years Even infants of 14 months imitate TV Decreased interest in reading and learning Poor health habits Poor behavioral ideas and attitudes Increased sexual activity Decreased age for first sexual encounter

63 Coffee and mental problems Percent of female complainers Coffee consumption (cups/day)

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