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John Curl, Joe Hetherington, Brad Lewis, and Michael Hsing Wu.

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Presentation on theme: "John Curl, Joe Hetherington, Brad Lewis, and Michael Hsing Wu."— Presentation transcript:

1 John Curl, Joe Hetherington, Brad Lewis, and Michael Hsing Wu

2  History of Video Cards  ATI vs. Nvidia  How Video Cards Work  Outputs and Inputs  Dual Graphics Card  HD Graphics Cards  Monitors  Review Questions

3  To generate a graphic and video interface.  Transmits Images to a Display  Video cards connect to the motherboard usually through PCI or PCI Express interface.  They output the signals through composite video, S-video, VGA, and DVI.

4 Brad Lewis

5  The first video card was the MDA(Monochrome Display Adapter) released in 1981 by IBM.  Could only show 80 columns and 25 lines of text in one color.  Had 4KB of memory.

6  MDA(Monochrome Display Adapter  Did not have any graphics mode  Only displayed monochrome text mode  Used a printer port output

7  VGA(Video Graphics Array)  Released in 1987  Improved resolution and colors used by many corporations  Memory improved from 4KB(MDA) to 256KB(MDA)

8  VGA led to the SVGA(Super VGA)  Developed in 1989  Reached 2MB of memory and resolution of 1024X768 at 256 color mode  Set the tone for 2D/3D cards

9  2D/3D cards  In 1997 3dfx introduced the Voodoo graphics card which had new 3D effects such as ▪ Mip mapping-pre-calculated collection of images that increase speed ▪ Z-buffering-the management of image depth coordinates ▪ Anti-aliasing-the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution  Voodoo 2 followed from 3dfx, and TNT and TNT2 from NVIDIA

10 Michael Wu

11  ATI Technologies Inc. founded in 1985  Acquired by AMD in 2006 and renamed AMD Graphics Product Group  ATI brand still on graphics cards  Developed the first integrated graphics chip with TV tuner card  First combination of 2D and 3D accelerator known as 3D Rage

12  Radeon started up in 2000  Successor to Rage  Brand for their consumer 3D accelerator add- in cards

13  Founded in 1993  Company of the Year for 2007 by Forbes  Developed the RSX ‘Reality Synthesizer’ GPU used for Playstation 3

14  GeForce first produced in 1999  As of 2009, there are 11 iterations of the design  Intended for PC gaming market

15 Joe Hetherington

16 This setup only works with Analog Video Cards and Monitors

17  The images you see on your monitor are made up of tiny dots called pixels. Most screens will display over 1 million pixels, so the computer needs to decide what to do with every one of them  This is where a translator comes in- something that takes binary data from the CPU and turns it into the images you see.

18  Think of a computer as a company with an art department.  The company wants a piece of artwork  The art department decides of to create the picture and then puts it on paper  The end result is an idea turns into a viewable picture

19  Creating an image out of binary data is a complicated process. To make a 3-D image, the graphics card first creates a wire frame out of straight lines. Then, it restripes the image (fills in the remaining pixels). It also adds lighting, texture and color. For fast-paced games, the computer has to go through this process about sixty times per second. Without a graphics card to perform the necessary calculations, the workload would be too much for the computer to handle.  The graphics card accomplishes this task using four main components:  A motherboard connection for data and power  A processor to decide what to do with each pixel on the screen  Memory to hold information about each pixel and to temporarily store completed pictures  A monitor connection so you can see the final result


21 DVI VGA S-Video Composite HDMI

22  PCI  AGP(Accelerated Graphics Port)  PCI-X  PCI-Express

23 ce-agp-pci-video-cards_.html

24 Graphics Processor Unit Similar to CPU Requires most cooling Most specifications refer to GPU


26  Memory chips (2-4)  Close proximity to GPU for better performance  Commonly use 128, 256, 512 MB locally  DDR2 + GDDR3

27  Image from GPU sent to memory (frame buffer) – bit map  More video memory = less burden on computer RAM  Memory bus – typically 128-256 bit wide  Determines how much data can be transferred per cycle

28  Applied to GPU/GPU + memory  Passive vs. Active Cooling  Passive  Heatsinks  Heat pipes

29  Fans  Single-slot vs. Dual-slot Coolers  Expansion slots in case  Cover both GPU + memory  Dual – designed to push hot air out of the back of the case

30 Michael Wu

31  Increases performance  Performance increase of 30-50%  Primarily for 3D applications  Generally used when running 2 or more monitors  Splits the graphic load between the two cards  Improves frame rates

32  Shared duties will cause  Improved rendering 3D images  Higher frame rates  Higher resolutions  Additional filters  Improve quality of the graphics

33  Running dual video cards is costly  Not all applications benefit from multiple graphics cards  Some applications may show a slight decrease in performance  Low end processor can only throttle the amount of data the system can provide to the graphics cards  Dual video cards is recommended for higher end systems

34  For average consumer, dual video cards are not necessary  Costs are too high for:  Capable motherboard  video cards  Core hardware

35  Ensure all parts are SLI (Scalable Link Interface) or Crossfire capable  ATI’s graphic solution is CrossFire  NVIDIA graphic solution is SLI  Ensure that motherboard has appropriate chipset.  2 PCIe x16 slots allow users to install 2 video cards

36  Install updated video card drivers  User may need to enable in BIOS

37 Michael Wu

38 With the introduction of Aero and DirectX 10, a new generation of video cards have been developed Higher end graphics cards support onboard decoding of the H.264 spec – Required to display high def DVDs Some video cards have HDCP – High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection – Required to display Blu-ray DVD playback

39  Allows for video display in 720p, 1080p, or 1080i  Higher quality video display  When used to display on a HDTV, the HDMI cable will carry over audio and video at the same time

40 John Curl

41  Also called the Visual Display Unit  Displays information from the computer to the user  Two main types are CRT(Cathode Ray Tube) and TFT-LCD(Thin Film Transitory Liquid Crystal Display)

42  Vacuum tube with an electron gun  Three electron guns(Red, Green, and Blue)  A florescent screen  Internal ways to reflect or deflect the electron beams in order to create a picture.



45  Holds millions of pixels  Each pixel is a layer of molecules between two electrodes.  Electricity is applied and the liquid crystals twist to let more or less light out.

46 w

47  CRT  Pros: ▪ High dynamic range (up to around 15,000:1 [1],) excellent color, wide gamut and low black level. ▪ Can display natively in almost any resolution and refresh rate ▪ No input lag ▪ Sub-millisecond response times ▪ Near zero color, saturation, contrast or brightness distortion. Excellent viewing angle.  Cons: ▪ Large size and weight, especially for bigger screens (a 20" unit weighs about 50lbs or 22kg) ▪ High power consumption ▪ Geometric distortion in non-flat CRTs ▪ Older CRTs are prone to screen burn-in ▪ Produces noticeable flicker at low refresh rates

48  LCD  Pros: ▪ Very compact and light ▪ Low power consumption ▪ No geometric distortion ▪ Rugged ▪ Little or no flicker depending on backlight technology  Cons: ▪ Limited viewing angle, causing color, saturation, contrast and brightness to vary, even within the intended viewing angle, by variations in posture. ▪ Bleeding and uneven backlighting in some monitors, causing brightness distortion, especially toward the edges. ▪ Slow response times, which cause smearing and ghosting artifacts. Modern LCDs have response times of 8ms or less. ▪ Only one native resolution. Displaying other resolutions requires a video scaler, which degrades image quality at lower resolutions. ▪ Fixed bit depth, many cheaper LCDs are incapable of true color. ▪ Input lag ▪ Dead pixels are possible during manufacturing

49 John Curl & Brad Lewis

50 1. You switch on your PC and get no display. You are sure the monitor is ok. Which order would you follow for troubleshooting this problem? a) Replace the video card, replace the monitor, replace the power supply, replace the system board, try a different monitor. b) Check that PC and monitor are plugged in, check that monitor brightness is turned up, check that PC fan is running. c) Check PC supply voltages, replace video card, replace CPU. d) Check that everything is plugged in, replace system board.

51 2. Your monitor screen is a light green color, what could be the problem? a. A pin is bent on the video cable connector b. The cable has been attached upside down c. The cable is reversed d. The cable is missing

52 3. Which of the following does not output signals? a. VGA b. MDA c. DVI d. S-video

53 4. Which order is how a video card works? a. PCI interface-CPU-Video Chip-RAM-RAMDAC b. CPU-PCI interface-Video Chip-RAM-RAMDAC c. CPU-RAM-RAMDAC-PCI interface-Video Chip d. PCI interface-Video Chip-CPU-RAM-RAMDAC

54 5. A graphics card uses 4 main components to translate binary data. Which one of these does not? a. A motherboard connection for data and power b. A processor to decide what to do with each pixel on the screen c. RAM to hold information about each pixel and to temporarily store completed pictures d. A monitor connection so you can see the final result e. All of these are used

55 6. Of the three 3-D effects _____________ is the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. a. Mip-mapping b. Anti-aliasing c. Z-buffering

56 7. A graphics card serves as a translator that takes binary data from the CPU and turns it into the images you see on the monitor. a. True b. False

57 8. Dead pixels are possible during manufacturing of ____________ monitors. a. Plasma b. LCD c. CRT

58 9. Refresh rate is the time a pixel in a monitor takes to go from active (black) to inactive (white) and back to active (black) again, measured in milliseconds. Lower numbers mean faster transitions and therefore fewer visible image artifacts. a. True b. False

59 10. Which of these is not an advantage when using an LCD monitor? a. Very compact and light b. No input lag c. No geometric distortion d. Low power consumption e. Rugged

60 11. Contrast ratio is the ratio of the _______________ of the brightest color (white) to that of the darkest color (black) that the monitor is capable of producing. a. Liquidity b. Luminosity c. Pixels

61 12. The display device in modern monitors is _______ while ________ was used in older monitors. a. HD, Projectors b. TFT-LCD, CRT c. Plasma, CRT

62 13. Which one does not belong? a. PCI b. PCI-Express c. PCI-X d. PCI-e

63 14. What is the key difference between a computer monitor and a Television? a. Dot Pitch b. HD- Capacity c. Luminosity d. Refresh Rate

64 15. The following picture depicts what type of port? a. HDMI b. VGA c. DVI d. S-Video

65 16. What series is the first combination of 2D and 3D accelerator? a. Mach Series b. Radeon Series c. Rage Series d. GeForce Series

66 17. With Dual Video Cards, the shared duties would: a. Keep constant filters b. Improve rendering of only 2D images c. Higher frame rates d. Improve performance by 100%

67 18. HDMI cable will carry video not audio; an addition audio cable is required a. True b. False

68 19. HDCP is required to display: a. HD DVDs b. Blu-Ray Discs c. LCD TV d. Plasma TV

69    agp-pci-video-cards_.html    &feature=fvw

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