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CIT Force Options.

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Presentation on theme: "CIT Force Options."— Presentation transcript:

1 CIT Force Options

2 CIT Force Options This course is designed as an Advanced CIT Class and suggested for those who have attended the 40 hour CIT training. This 8 hour course is designed to provide training to Law Enforcement Professionals to safely use appropriate Force Options when dealing with someone in Mental Crisis. Force Options to include isolate and contain, avoid engaging, de-escalation tactics, physical control tactics, less lethal and deadly force. Class is designed as a mixture of classroom and hands-on training

3 CIT Force Options- Objectives
Learn what types of Mental Illness situations are most dangerous to Law Enforcement Officers Develop Communication and De-escalation Tactics to help diffuse Mental Crisis situations. Develop Force Options and Restraint Tactics to safely respond to those in Mental Crisis Develop Tactics to safely respond to Suicidal, Suicide by Cop or Assassination/Ambush Situations

4 Training Equipment King County CIT Program uses Mock Force Options Equipment during all Mock Scenes –Why? With out Mock Weapons you’ll never know what Officers would really do on the street Officers know it’s VERBAL ONLY during the Mock Scenes without them Was proper Patrol Tactics used during scenarios Examples: Slowing Down, Contact/Cover Can Officers combine Verbal Tactics with Physical Tactics Partners can draw concealed non-lethal items (cellphone) making them decide on Force Option Able to correct students during training if Force Option is not appropriate Force Science UOF Myths Short Video

5 Training Equipment SIRT Training Pistol Laser Based Training Pistol
Can tell when finger is on trigger Can tell when trigger is pulled and if target is hit No need for safety equipment so you can see emotions, expressions and body language Force Science UOF Myths Short Video

6 Training Equipment Training X-26 Taser – Inert Laser Pointer Can tell when trigger been pulled Can tell how long the trigger is pulled Can tell where it’s pointed Force Science UOF Myths Short Video

7 L.A.S.R.: Laser Activated Shot Reporter – Software $99
Allows you to time students in specific drills Allows you to show where they hit on target Can diagnose them after they’ve shot Allows you to train in realistic positions Seated Ground Vehicle While moving One handed while moving

8 Assassinations/Ambushes
The FBI study showed ambush situations were the Biggest Category of circumstance behind 543 officers feloniously killed between 2002 to 2011: 23.2% FBI Study

9 What is your objective for using force?
Defensive Force - Subject reasonably perceived as an immediate threat of harm Capture Force - Subject fleeing from (serious physical harm) crime and officer Is justified in tackling subject on the current surface Restraint Force - Force to facilitate restraint (including turtling) Compliance Force - Force to gain volitional compliance to commands Distraction Force – To facilitate restraint of cognitively impaired person CIT Force Option deals primarily with Defensive Force

10 AXIS I and AXIS II Changing with DSM-5
40 hour CIT Class General covers AXIS –I AXIS I – Psychiatric Disorder – Diagnosis Examples: Depression Schizophrenia Social Phobias Bi-Polar Can have more than one disorder Medication can help Force Options 8 hour Primarily AXIS II AXIS II – Personality Disorder and DD Examples: DD Autism Personality Antisocial Paranoid Borderline (Axis I in DSM-5) Medication doesn’t generally help !

11 Lakewood Statistics Clemmon’s Revolver
Clemmon’s Glock Round #1 Tina Back of Head Round #2 Mark Head Glock Jams/Misfired Clemmon’s Revolver probably had both out Round #1 Ronnie Neck Greg’s Glock Round #1 Clemmons Torso Clemmon’s Revolver Rounds # 2-6 Missed Hit interior walls Greg’s Taser in it’s holster is torn from Greg’s belt Clemmons disarms Greg of his Glock Round #2 Greg Head

12 Lakewood Statistics Law Enforcement’s Hit Rate Clemmon’s Hit Rate
All wore Body Armor Clemmon’s Hit Rate 55% 5 out of 9 No Body Armor Why did he win! You could not hire hit man to try and to assassinate four armed officers Clemmons hard core Psychopath with delusions First gun grab attempt 16 yoa in court

13 Survival = Getting Head Out of Way
Deputy Steve Cox was last King County Deputy killed by gun fire. Homicide suspect drew from concealment and shot Steve in the head – Shot through his finger as he tried to deflect or grab the gun – Hit Steve in the Face, killing him. Video

14 Psychopath 1-3% of the population
Commit a disproportionate amount of serious and violent crime 40% of Prison Population Overwhelming Force and Respect Cryptic Consequences

15

16 Law Enforcement Training Scars
Suspect’s Primary Target Head and Neck Area Law Enforcement Training Scars FBI Study – Handgun rounds to torso WILL NOT reliably incapacitate subject Officers are taught to shoot at center mass Learn to lock in shooting stance (Not moving head) Goes against natural instinct to move

17 Law Enforcement Training Scars
No Environmental Shooting Positions Seated – in Vehicle, Ground, Under Table or Low-Light At close ranges (less than 3 feet) with and without close non- shoot target(s) Little movement and all shooting at same time/direction Decision to shoot had been made for them in most cases on range Little or NO Pre-Attack (Physical or Firearm) training Non Realistic CQB Shooting Position – Rock and Lock Most officers are disarmed while drawing Most are only given limited “RBT”-Reality Based Training Scenarios – 2-3 scenes a year

18 Force Options Covered Seated 360 Degree Shooting in Classroom
Flinch Draw – Moving head off line while drawing Taser to Handgun Transition – Handgun to Taser G-WRAPS Weapon Retention Stop Kick Back Fall to Head Avoidance on ground Arm Drag Entry – Hand Fighting WRAPS – Takedown Position to Control Position Rear Weapon Retention Foot Sweep and Foot Trap Takedown Standing Control Cuffing Team Tactics – Team Control and Restraining

19 Sam’s 4 Plays De-Escalation Training
Introduce Yourself ….Hi, I’m Sgt Gulla Obtain the Person’s Name … “What’s your name ? (3) Expressing to the person what you are seeing . What do you see ? Use the I word – “I can see you’re angry” Summarize … to be an “active listener” you should “summarize” Communicating with the person in crisis Summarize the information that you have learned/obtained With permission from: Major Sam Cochran, Retired University of Memphis

20 Team Tactics Training

21 Police Response Avoid Engaging When possible, If the individual presents no immediate danger to himself, herself, or others, avoid engaging the person Isolate and Contain Do not invade personal space Do not touch without permission or stand too close Speak slowly and quietly using simple concrete language *Be prepared if above does not work and ready to move to other options “Not just another call… Police Response to people with mental illness in Ontario” – Practical guide for the frontline officer Training Manual Centre for Addiction and Mental Health * Added by Sgt Don Gulla

22 Caution When Using Taser in Deadly Force Situation
Video of 30 Second Taser Hit

23 Sheboygan Incident Video

24 Violence and Mental Illness/Substance Abuse
Rankings of Violence Alcohol Drugs TBI Anti-Social Personality Schizophrenia Depression When Mental Illness is combined with Substance Abuse, it increases the likely hood of violence by 500% Mental disorder and violent behavior: Perceptions and evidence. Monahan, John American Psychologist, Vol 47(4), Apr 1992, doi: / X

25 Emotions to Violence Fear – *One of greatest danger to Police - On both sides Anger Honor/Respect Revenge Control Shame Paranoid Mental disorder and violent behavior: Perceptions and evidence. Monahan, John American Psychologist, Vol 47(4), Apr 1992, doi: / X *Added by Sgt Don Gulla

26 Predictor’s of Violence
Best predictor of Violence is Past History of Violence

27 Video of SBC man shooting gun
Suicide by COP Video of SBC man shooting gun TacOps NEWSLETTER Quarterly Publication JANUARY 2012 LAPD

28 Suicide by Cop Demographic and Historical Indicators
Reported suicidal communications (87%) On psychiatric medications (42%) Mental health diagnosis (62%) Under psychological care (30%) Past suicidal ideation (86%) Prior suicide attempt (39%) Mood disorder (48%) (of those with known or suspected issues) Incident Indicators Shoots at police (48%) those who had guns Behavioral threats to harm others (98%) Harms civilians (49%) Verbal threats to harm others (70%) Under influence of alcohol (24%) Psychotic (21%) Suicidal communication during the incident (61%) (of these, 79% mention SBC specifically) Demographic and Historical Indicators Divorced or separated (43%) Older male, mid 30s Recent behavioral changes (82%) Relationship problems (72%) Spiritual issues (65%) Prior suicidal communications (55%) With SBC content (21%) More rounds fired if deadly force used (mean = 15) Incident Indicators Likely to die (51%) Less likely to flee (33%) Possesses a knife (26%) Inconsistent escape behavior (18%) Suicidal note written (15%) Kris Mohandie,1 Ph.D.; J. Reid Meloy,2 Ph.D., A.B.P.P.; and Peter I. Collins,3 M.C.A., M.D., F.R.C.P.(C) Suicide by Cop Among Officer-Involved Shooting Cases Reported suicidal communications (87%) Past suicidal ideation (86%) Mental health diagnosis (62%) Prior suicidal communications (55%) With SBC content (21%) Mood disorder (48%) (of those with known or suspected issues) On psychiatric medications (42%) Prior suicide attempt (39%) Less likely to be on parole or probation (38%) Less likely to have a probation or parole violation (35%) Under psychological care (30%) Behavioral threats to harm others (98%) Verbal threats to harm others (70%) Suicidal communication during the incident (61%) (of these, 79% mention SBC specifically) Harms civilians (49%) Shoots at police (48%) based upon those who had a gun (n = 122) Under influence of alcohol (24%) Psychotic (21%) Police Indicators Less lethal force initially deployed (39%) J Forensic Sci, March 2009, Vol. 54, No. 2 doi: /j x Available online at:

29 Suicide by Cop Police Indicators
Less lethal force initially deployed (39%) More rounds fired if deadly force used This study continues a long line of empirical evidence that sets straight the widely held, but false belief, that there is a negative correlation between suicidal risk and homicidal risk. In fact, the opposite appears to be true: a suicidal individual poses a greater risk of homicide or at least violence toward others, than a non-suicidal individual. Law enforcement apprehension of an armed, suicidal individual requires a high degree of vigilance for the safety of all civilians and officers at the scene of the incident. Kris Mohandie,1 Ph.D.; J. Reid Meloy,2 Ph.D., A.B.P.P.; and Peter I. Collins,3 M.C.A., M.D., F.R.C.P.(C) J Forensic Sci, March 2009, Vol. 54, No. 2 doi: /j x Available online at: Suicide by Cop Among Officer-Involved Shooting Cases Demographic and Historical Indicators Older male, mid 30s Reported suicidal communications (87%) Past suicidal ideation (86%) Recent behavioral changes (82%) Relationship problems (72%) Spiritual issues (65%) Mental health diagnosis (62%) Prior suicidal communications (55%) With SBC content (21%) Mood disorder (48%) (of those with known or suspected issues) Divorced or separated (43%) On psychiatric medications (42%) Prior suicide attempt (39%) Less likely to be on parole or probation (38%) Less likely to have a probation or parole violation (35%) Under psychological care (30%) Incident Indicators Behavioral threats to harm others (98%) Verbal threats to harm others (70%) Suicidal communication during the incident (61%) (of these, 79% mention SBC specifically) Likely to die (51%) Harms civilians (49%) Shoots at police (48%) based upon those who had a gun (n = 122) Less likely to flee (33%) Possesses a knife (26%) Under influence of alcohol (24%) Psychotic (21%) Inconsistent escape behavior (18%) Suicidal note written (15%) Police Indicators Less lethal force initially deployed (39%) More rounds fired if deadly force used (mean = 15)

30 Responding to Threats of Suicide
To increase Officer Safety and gain Intel: #1 Call subject via phone prior to contact Connect prior to Directing – Make Connection Method of Suicide – Weapons What type ? Handgun vs Scoped Rifle Military Veteran ? Training and Weapons Listen to demeanor and emotions Others in house/vehicle with them Threats of Suicide allows you to “Ping” cellphones to find their location Sgt Don Gulla, King County Sheriff’s Office

31 Threat of Suicide by COP
Contact with Suicidal Person with Weapon Isolate and Contain if possible – Specialty Units SBC Subject is likely going to push the event to make police take action – BE PREPARED ! Warnings that Lethal Force maybe used or Less Lethal if appropriate and Only if Time permits Remember subject doesn’t have to point a weapon at you or others to perceived as an immediate threat of harm Cover and Backup One Officer talks and Cover Officer is Prepared to shoot – 48% fire at officers Not Hollywood – One Shot Myth – Reactionary Gap Consider Rifle vs Handgun and Shot Placement Sgt Don Gulla, King County Sheriff’s Office

32 Allen v Muskogee: Many cases emphasize the need for enhanced decision making skills with respect to use of force decisions. Allen v. Muskogee[viii] serves as one example. In Allen, officers responded to a call of a suicidal man. Upon their arrival at the scene they observed Mr. Allen, seated alone, in his vehicle with a gun. Within 90 seconds of their arrival, the officers rushed the car in an attempt to disarm Mr. Allen, rather than isolating and negotiating with him. When the officers rushed the car, Allen made a sudden movement toward the officers leading the officers to believe they were in danger of being shot. The officers opened fire and killed Allen. Almost 25 years ago, the courts began telling law enforcement that firearms training had to be more reflective of the conditions that officers would face while working. In Popow v. City of Margate[v], an officer in foot pursuit of a suspected kidnapper fired as the kidnapper ran down the street. As a result, the officer accidentally shot Mr. Popow, killing him. While the court’s reasoning in Popow with respect to the constitutional analysis of an accidental shooting would not be followed by courts today, the court’s assertions with respect to firearm’s training is still being cited by courts. In addressing the City of Margate’s liability with respect to firearms training the court noted that the officer involved testified in his deposition that he was initially trained on deadly force at the police academy ten years prior to the shooting. His continued firearms training with respect to firearms consisted of going to a range twice a year. The court noted that there was no training with respect to low light conditions, moving targets or firing in residential areas. The court concluded that it was entirely foreseeable that an officer from the City of Margate, a largely residential area, would have to pursue a fleeing (moving) suspect at night (low‐light). The court remanded the case back to the trial court after deciding that a jury could find the training provided by the City of Margate was grossly inadequate[vi]

33 What would you do ? VOLUME 7 NO. 1 TacOps NEWSLETTER Quarterly Publication JANUARY 2012

34 Questions

35 Early Warning Signs The most Violent Job in Washington state isn't being a police officer or a security guard. It's working as a nurse's aide Emergency Room Staff and Nurses Aides Highest number of Labor and Industry Claims (313) is Western State Hospital Originally published July 12, 2011 at 6:37 AM | Page modified July 12, 2011 at 9:34 AM Seattle public radio station KUOW-FM made that finding as part of an investigative series on workplace safety airing this week. The station found that violence strikes health care workers in Washington at six times the state average, and frontline caregivers in emergency rooms and psychiatric wards get assaulted even more than that James Robinson, president of the union for many workers at Western State Hospital, says there were 313 assaults there last year - a drop of nearly 30 percent in assaults per patient-care hour, though union officials also note that many incidents go unreported because of the time required to fill out paperwork about assaults. The single most violent workplace in the state is at Western State Hospital, where criminal defendants are taken when they are found incompetent to stand trial. Workers at psychiatric hospitals are assaulted on the job more often than anybody else - 60 times more than the average worker in Washington state.

36 King County CIT Program
King County is largest County in Washington State Funded by MIDD 1 cent of 1 % Sales Tax – Mental Illness and Drug Dependency King County CIT Training Started at the end of 2010 40 hour CIT Basic Average 12 classes per year 8 hour CIT In-Service Average 12 classes per year 8 hour CIT Youth Average 2 classes per year 8 hour CIT Force Options Average 4 classes per year Over 40 King County Law Enforcement Agencies attend training Funding pays First Responders (Police) $55 per hour for backfill or overtime Less than 18% apply for backfill or overtime Corrections, Communication Specialist, Fire, MHPs and Court Marshals also qualify to attend if space is avaliable Crisis Solution Center Mobile Crisis Team MCT Responses 24/7 to LE Request Crisis Diversion Facility 16 beds LE drop off alternative to Jail/ER Crisis Diversion Interim Services 23 beds referred from CDF Regional Mental Health Court Veterans Court

37 Use of Force Legal Update
Mike Brave UOF Video

38 Use Of Force Myths Force Science Video
Force Science UOF Myths Short Video

39 My Contact Information Sgt Don Gulla – King Co CIT Coordinator King County Sheriff’s Office Current working at Washington State Criminal Justice Training Center Phone Website


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