Presentation on theme: "Guidelines for Noise-Free Writing"— Presentation transcript:
1Guidelines for Noise-Free Writing Purpose:InformRequestInstructProposeRecommendPersuadeRecordReaders:KnowledgeAbilityInterest
2Tools for Explaining the Technical DefinitionsExamplesImportanceUses and applicationsCause and effects (reasons)Problems and solutionsCategoriesIn other wordsDescriptionProcess explanationHistory
3Hierarchical Headings FIRST-LEVEL HEADINGWrite first-level headings in capital letters and put them flush with the left margin. Use boldface to make the heading stand out and separate it from the written material above and below it by at least one line space. (Some formats center the first-level heading.)Second-Level HeadingPlace second-level headings flush with the left margin with at least one line space separating them from text. Capitalize only the first letter of each main word, and make these headings boldface.Third-level headings. Place third-level headings on the same line as the textthey precede. Capitalize them as a sentence would be; use boldface or italics.Notice that all three levels of headings use a sans serif font (Arial in this case)while body text uses a serif font (Times New Roman in this case).
4Headings and Outlines First-level heading A. Second-level heading 1. Third-level headingFIRST-LEVEL HEADINGWrite first-level headings in capital letters and put them flush with the left margin. Use boldface to make the heading stand out and separate it from the written material above and below it by at least one line space. (Some formats center the first-level heading.)Second-Level HeadingPlace second-level headings flush with the left margin with at least one line space separating them from text. Capitalize only the first letter of each main word, and make these headings boldface.Third-level headings. Place third-level headings on the same line as the text they precede. Capitalize them as a sentence would be; use boldface or italics. Notice that all three levels of headings use a sans serif font (Arial in this case)while body text uses a serif font (Times New Roman in this case).
5Bulleted and Numbered Lists Problem:First of all, set the dual power supply to +12 V and −12 V. Next, set up theop-amp as shown in Figure 1. Use a 1 Vpp sine wave at 1 kHz and then plotthe output waveform on the HP digital scope. Then obtain a Bode plot for thegain from 200 Hz to 20 KHz.Revision:Set the dual power supply to +12 V and −12 V.Set up the op-amp as shown in Figure 1.Use a 1Vpp sine wave at 1 kHz.Plot the output waveform on the HP digital scope.Obtain a Bode plot for the gain from 200 Hz to 20 kHz.
6Bulleted and Numbered Lists Some of the main concerns of environmental engineering areAir pollution controlPublic water supplyWastewaterSolid waste disposalIndustrial hygieneHazardous wastes
7Lists: Parallel Phrasing Lack of parallel phrasing:Last week we accomplished the following for WW3-a:Completed BIU, ICACHE, and ABUS logic design.All instruction buffer blocks have had final simulations.Written and debugged 75 percent of test patterns.Scheduling of first silicon reticules for WW4-a with Vern Whittingtonin Fab 16.Revision:Ran final simulations on all instruction buffer blocks.Wrote and debugged 75 percent of test patternsScheduled first silicon reticules for WW4-a with Vern Whittington
8Efficient WordingWordy: It is essential that the lens be cleaned at frequent intervals on a regularbasis as is delineated in Ops Procedure 132-c.Concise: Clean the lens frequently and regularly (see Ops Procedure 132-c).Wordy: The location of the experimental robotics laboratory is in room 212A.Noise-free: The experimental robotics lab is in 212A.Wordy: There are several EC countries that are now trying to upgrade thecommunication skills of their engineers.Concise: Several EC countries are trying to upgrade the communication skillsof their engineers.Wordiness: With reference to the fact that the company is deficient in manufacturing and production space, the contract may in all probability be awardedto some other enterprise.Revision: The company may not be awarded the contract because it lacksproduction facilities.
9Unnecessary Passive Voice Passive-voice problem: In order to estimate company sales, industry estimatesshould first be looked at, because the sales of an individual companyare often reflected by them.Revision: To estimate company sales, look at industry estimates becauseindividual company sales often reflect them.Passive-voice problem: Control of the flow is provided by a DJ-12 valve.Revision: A DJ-12 valve controls the flow.Passive-voice problem: A system for delineating these factors is shown inFigure 5.Revision: Figure 5 shows a system for delineating these factors.
10Camouflaged Subjects and Verbs Camouflaged subject: Complaints by employees about the food served in thecompany cafeteria have been frequent.Revision: Employees have frequently complained about the food served in thecompany cafeteria.Camouflaged subject: An analysis of the data will be made when all the resultsare in.Revision: We will analyze the data when all the results are in.Camouflaged verb: Employees have frequently made complaints about thefood served in the company cafeteria.Camouflaged verb: Acknowledgment of all incoming messages is performedby the protocol handler.Revision: The protocol handler acknowledges all incoming messages.
11Mind-Numbing Noun Stacks Noun stack: Cocombustion-chamber exit gas temperatures are approximately2400◦F.Revision: The temperature of gas exiting the cocombustion chamber is aboutNoun stack: Install a hazardous materials dispersion monitor system.Revision: Install a system for monitoring the dispersal of hazardous materials.Unnecessary ExpletivesWeak expletive: It is the results of studies of the central region of the M87galaxy that have shown that there are stars near the center that move aroundas though there were some huge mass at the center attracting them.Revision: Results of studies of the central region of the M87 galaxy show thatstars near the center move around as though some huge mass at the centerwere attracting them.
12Ambiguity, Vagueness, Directness Ambiguous: Before accepting materials from the new subcontractors, weshould make sure they meet our requirements.Clear: Before we accept them, we should make sure the materials fromthe new subcontractors meet our requirements.Ambiguous: The microprocessor interfaced directly with the 7055 RAM chip.It runs at 5MHz.Clear: The microprocessor interfaced directly with the 7055 RAM chip.The 7055 runs at 5MHz.Ambiguous: Our records now include all development reports for B-44engines received from JPL.Clear: Our records now include all B-44 engine development reportsreceived from JPL.Ambiguous: After testing out at the specified high temperatures, the companyaccepted the new chip.Clear: The company accepted the new chip after it tested out at thespecified high temperatures.
13Coherence & Topic Strings Poor CoherenceA significant disadvantage of the 125-H CRT is its high power consumption.To produce the high voltages and currents that are necessary to drive anddeflect the electron beam, the tube requires substantial power. The 125-HCRT is inefficient because only about 10% to 20% of the power is convertedinto visible light at the surface of the screen. Portable display devices thatrun on batteries, where lower power consumption is necessary, are not suitablefor the 125-H. We should consider other options before committing topurchase the 125-H.Effective Coherence with a Continuous Topic StringThis tube requires substantial power to produce the high voltages and currents that are necessary to drive and deflect the electron beam. In addition,the 125-H is inefficient——only about 10% to 20% of the power usedby the tube is converted into visible light at the surface of the screen. Thus,the 125-H is poorly suited for portable display devices that run on batteries,where lower power consumption is necessary. Because of this drawback, weshould consider other options before committing to purchase the 125-H.
14Coherence & Topic Strings Effective Coherence with a Shifting Topic StringThe most important part of a solar heating system is the solar collector whosemain function is to heat water to be used in space heating. There are varioustypes of collectors. However, the flat-plate collector is the most commonand the focus of the following discussion. A flat-plate collector consists ofa box-shaped black plate absorber covered by one or more transparentlayers of glass or plastic with the sides and the bottom of the box insulated.These layers of glass or plastic have an intervening air space that producesthe heat-trapping effect. Water is heated as it circulates through or below theabsorber component, which is heated by solar radiation.